(HST) Human Heritage - A World History © 2006

(HST) Human Heritage - A World History...

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Human Heritage: A World History © 2006 Chapter 1: Geography and History Geography and History Many scientists believe that people have been living on the earth for more than 2 million years. Where and how they lived was influenced by the kind of land on which they lived. The relationships between people and their environment have been the center of world history. The relationships between geography and history are the central focus of Chapter 1. Section 1 introduces the six essential elements of geography—the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and the uses of geography—and describes how these elements explain what a place is like and why. Section 2 describes how landforms and climate have shaped history and introduces the concepts of plate tectonics and continental drift. Section 3 focuses on the ways that natural resources have affected the location and growth of settlements throughout history. Section 4 tells about ancient legends that people in China, Africa, and Rumania have used to help explain the past. Section 5 explores how archaeology and carbon dating help scientists learn about ancient civilizations. Chapter 2: Prehistoric People Prehistoric People Most archaeologists believe that there have been people on the earth for about 1.75 million years. The period beginning when people first appeared and ending when writing developed about 5,000 years ago is called prehistory. The period after writing developed is called history. Chapter 2 explores the prehistoric period and
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Human Heritage: A World History © 2006 the beginning of civilization, when people began to advance culturally and to live in cities. Section 1 discusses the Paleolithic Age, when people first began to migrate from Africa to Europe and Asia. It explains how tools, language, clothing, and the discovery of fire helped early people, the Neanderthals and the Cro-Magnons, advance. Section 2 focuses on the Neolithic Age, when people changed from food gatherers to food producers. It explains why specialization, government, and religion were important in Neolithic societies. Chapter 3: Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Chapter 3 explores the earliest known civilizations which developed along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Groups of people migrated into the area from the north and the south. They found the land rich and fertile, and the rivers provided water and food. In ancient times, the area where these groups settled was called Mesopotamia, meaning "the land between the rivers." Section 1 describes how religion, family life, and city-state government influenced Sumer, the first known civilization in the world. Section 2 focuses on other Mesopotamian civilizations that developed after Sumer.
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