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(PSG) Understanding Psychology

(PSG) Understanding Psychology - U nderstanding Psychology...

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Understanding Psychology © 2008 Chapter 1: Introducing Psychology Chapter Overviews Chapter 1 is an overview of psychology, the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Section 1 describes the reasons psychologists study human behavior and the goals of psychology. Learning about psychology can help students gain a better understanding of their own behaviors, knowledge about how psychologists study human and animal behavior, and practical applications for enriching their lives. Section 2 explores the historical approaches to psychology, including structuralism, functionalism, inheritable traits, and Gestalt psychology. Today, the most important approaches to the study of psychology are the psychoanalytic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, and biological approaches. The newest approach to psychology, the sociocultural approach, analyzes the effects of culture, politics, and socioeconomics on behavior. Section 3 discusses the work of psychologists, details the differences between psychiatrists and psychologists, and discusses the many specialty fields in psychology, including clinical, developmental, educational, community, industrial/organizational, and experimental psychology. Chapter 2: Psychological Research Methods and Statistics Chapter Overviews Psychologists learn what they do not know by carefully and systematically collecting information. Chapter 2 discusses the different methods that psychologists use to study issues and explores some of the problems in conducting research. Section 1 discusses how psychologists must first decide how to approach a research issue. Then researchers use correlation studies, case studies, surveys, naturalistic
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Understanding Psychology © 2008 observation, and experimentation to obtain information. Ethical principles govern their research. Section 2 explores the problems in gathering data that psychologists must recognize and resolve. Psychologists' attitudes and reactions may influence the results of studies, and so certain methods, such as the single-blind and double-blind techniques and placebos, are used to avoid the self-fulfilling prophecy in a study. Section 3 describes the methods that psychologists use to interpret the results of their research. Psychologists can use statistics, a branch of mathematics, to support their hypotheses when meaningful data is evaluated correctly. Descriptive statistics include distributions of data, measures of central tendency, measures of variance, and correlation coefficients. Inferential statistics are used to make generalizations about the population from which the experiment participants come. Chapter 3: Infancy and Childhood Chapter Overviews Developmental psychology—the study of the changes that occur as people grow up and grow older—is the focus of Chapter 3. Section 1
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(PSG) Understanding Psychology - U nderstanding Psychology...

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