Chapter2 - AP World History Stearns Chapter 2 Classical Civilization China I Introduction longest-lived civilization in history A Isolated 1 Couldnt

Chapter2 - AP World History Stearns Chapter 2 Classical...

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AP World History - StearnsChapter 2 – Classical Civilization: ChinaI. Introduction – longest-lived civilization in historyA. Isolated1. Couldn’t learn from other cultures2. Rare invasions3. Distinctive identity4. Relatively little internal chaos w/ decline of Shang dynastya. Greatest links to classical societyB. Intellectual theory1. Harmony of nature – yin and yang – balance2. Seek Dao – the waya. Avoid excessb. Appreciate balance of oppositesc. Humans part of world, not on outside – like MediterraneanThesis: China emerged with an unusually well-integrated system in which government, philosophy, economic incentives, the family, and the individual were intended to blend into a harmonious whole.II. Patterns in Classical ChinaA.Pattern of rule1. Dynasty, family of kings – create strong politics, economy2. Dynasty grew weak, taxes declined3. Social divisions increased4. Invasion or internal rebellion5. Another dynasty emerged – general, invader, peasant rebelB. Zhou Dynasty – 1029-258 BCE1. Started decline in 700 BCE2. Ruled w/ local princes – alliance systema. Successful in agricultural communities – ie manor system Europeb. Princes received land for troops/tax3. Eventually local leaders ignored central gov’t4. Contributionsa. Extended territory to “Middle Kingdom” – wheat north, rice south1. Transportation/communication difficult – hard to governb. Mandate of Heaven – Sons of Heaven – emperors live affluent lifec. Greater cultural unity1. Banned human sacrifice2. Standardized language – Mandarin – most people speaking samed. Confucius – wrote on political ethics5. 402-201 BCE Era of the Warring StatesC. Qin Dynasty – China’s namesake1. Xin Shi Huangdi – first emperor – brutal leadera. Undid power of regional leadersb. Nobles brought to emperor’s homec. Officials selected from nonaristocratic groups – allegianced. Extended territory southe. Built Great Wall – 3000 milesf. Burned books, attacked culture – hurts his autocratic rule

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