Chapter5 - Chapter 5 The Classical Period Directions Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E I Expansion and Integration A Key point how did classical

Chapter5 - Chapter 5 The Classical Period Directions...

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Chapter 5The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E.I. Expansion and IntegrationA. Key point – how did classical civilizations adjust to expansion1. Between 550>400 BCE Confucius, Laozi, Buddha, Socratesa. Need to articulate central valuesB. How did they all unite?1. China – more centralized2. Mediterranean – more localized/diverse3. India – key religious values – not as vulnerable to collapse – like RomeC. What are the two challenges of integration?1. Territorial – how to commanda. China – language for elite, resettlementb. Rome – local autonomy, tolerancec. India – spread caste system2. Social – inequality between men/women – upper/lower classa. China – hierarchy – deference – obedience – Confucianb. India – caste systemc. Rome – slaveryD. How to maintain cohesion?1. Rome – promise of upward mobility2. China – mutual respect between upper and lower3. India – future reincarnation into higher form if good lifeII. Beyond the Classical CivilizationsA. Some as border civilizations, some entirely independent1. Wider trade patternsB. Africa – Kush – hieroglyphics, iron, monarchy1. Defeated by Axum, then Ethiopiaa. Ethiopian Christian church cut off from Greeks – isolatedb. Ethiopia – by 20thcentury – oldest uninterrupted monarchy2. Farming on southern border of Sahara – regional kingdomsa. Agriculture spread slowly – dense vegetation, diseases on domesticatedb. Eventually farmed new crops, traded w/ AsiaC. Japan – 200 CE extensive agriculture – migrations from Korea over 200,000 year period1. tribal chiefs – each tribe had own god2. Chinese visitor – law-abiding, fond of drink, experts agriculturea. Tattoos to separate social classes3. Shintoism – worship political rulers and spirits of nature – eventually nationalized4. 400 CE – one regional ruler took over surrounding territoriesa. By 600 CE began trading/interacting with Chinese civilizationD. Northern Europe – lagged behind Japan – most backward areas in the world1. Regional kingdoms – no written language – except Latin importsa. Primitive agriculture and hunting2. Gods and rituals to deal with naturea. Not until 1000 CE did Christianity truly uniteE. Central America – Olmec civilization – more advanced than Europe/Africa1. Corn staple food crop, but few domesticated animals2. Olmec culturea. Artistic forms – jade
b. religious images – animals and humansc. science – accurate calendars3. Successors made Teotihuacan – great city, later taken over by Maya – 400 CE on4. Olmecs similar to Sumerians – foundation5. Incas in Peru/Bolivia – isolation form world – couldn’t copy and react

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