Chapter6 - Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization The Rise and Spread of Islam I Introduction A Before 7th century contacts but not total control of

Chapter6 - Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization The Rise...

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Chapter 6The First Global Civilization:The Rise and Spread of IslamI. IntroductionA. Before 7thcentury – contacts, but not total control of ancient world under one empire1. Arabia – nomadic land on periphery of major civilizationsB. 7thcentury – followers of Islam “submission” – Muslims – Allah – one God1. Began conquest and conversion2. Within decades, Muhammad had empire of Persia, Greece and EgyptC. Later empire spread1. Merchants, mystics, warriors2. Empire expandeda. Africa, Asia, southern Europeb. Across steppes to central Asia, western China, south Asiac. Across ocean trade routes to southeast Asia and eastern Africad. Across overland trade routes, Sahara to western Africae. Across Asia Minor and into European heartland – rivals Christianity3. Muslim merchantsa. Worked with traders from other regionsb. Prime agents for transfer of food crops, technology, and ideasc. Muslim scholars studied, preserved and improved upon learning of Ancient Civs1. Eventually, Arabic – language of Qur’an would become internationallanguage of the educated4. Would define Middle East and N. Africa until todayII. Desert and Town: The Arabian World and the Birth of IslamA. Introduction1. Geography – unlikely birth of religion – inhospitable desert2. Bedouin – nomadic culture dominanta. Some towns – Mecca/Medina – merely extensions of Bedouin life1. Safety of trade routes determined success of cities2. People linked to kinship3. Culturea. Focus on clan and familyb. language and religion3. Some coastal trading townsB. Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries, and the Cycle of Vengeance1. Organizationa. kin-related clans group with others to make tribes1. Only congregate for war, severe crisis2. Conditions force you to rely on clan – kicked out equals death3. Life regulated by councilsa. shayks – leaders of the tribe/clan1. has large herds, several wives, many children/retainersb. Ideas of shayks enforced by warriorsb. Conflict over pastureland/watering holes1. Need to defend one’s honor2. One man’s slight could lead to huge conflict followed by revenge3. Constant conflicts led to weakened empire – vulnerable to outsidersC. Towns and Long-Distance Trade1. Small communities of traders emerge2. Some northern cities become trade linksa. Mecca dominates – mountainous region – controlled by Umayyad clan of Quraysh tribe1. Mecca has Ka’ba – focus of bazaarsa. Obligatory truce brought rival groups together
b. Medina – to the north – wells and springs1. Unlike Mecca, run by five competing families – 2 bedouin, 2 Jewisha. These divisions later help with formation of IslamD. Marriage and Family in Pre-Islamic Arabia1. Women greater freedom…varied from tribe to tribea. Key economic roles – milking camel, weaving cloth, raising childrenb. Unlike Persian neighbors – not covered or secludedc. wrote poetryd. Able to have multiple partnerse. Lineage matrilineal2. …but, men still greatera. Earn status through war/battle

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