Chapter8 - Chapter 8 African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam I Introduction A Mansa Musa crossed Sahara on hajj 1 wealth symbolized potential of

Chapter8 - Chapter 8 African Civilizations and the Spread...

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Chapter 8 African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam I. Introduction A. Mansa Musa – crossed Sahara on hajj 1. wealth symbolized potential of Africa B. Sub-sahara never totally isolated 1. But…for periods contact was difficult and intermittent C. Changes came from 1. Arrival of Muhammad followers a. Commercial and military attributes b. changed by Islam, but retained individuality c. African culture not united d. provided major external contact between sub-Saharan Africa and world D. State building 1. Mali, Songhay – created more from military power than ethnic/cultural unity 2. Merchant city states on west/East coast 3. Portugese in 15 th century brought Africans into world economy more 4. Bantu migration continued 5. Societies don’t build so much on previous civilizations II. African Societies: Diversities and Similarities A. Introduction 1. Diverse – large centralized states to stateless societies a. Differences in geography, language, religion, politics 2. Universalistic faiths penetrated continent b. but…universal states/religions don’t characterize history B. Stateless societies 1. organized around kinship and other forms of obligation 2. council of families a. or…secret societies of men/women 3. little concentration of authority a. government – not a full-time job b. after internal dispute, you can always leave and form new village 4. Unable to a. mobilize for war b. organize large building projects c. create stable conditions for long distance trade C. Common Elements in African Societies 1. Even though different, similarities existed a. language – Bantu migration b. thought c. religion – animistic religion 1. power of natural forces 2. ritual and worship 3. dancing, drumming, divination, and sacrifice 4. witchcraft 5. cosmology – how universe worked 6. belief in creator deity 7. saw selves as first settlers, land meant more than economic usefulness 8. link of deceased ancestors 2. Economies
a. North Africa – fully involved in Mediterranean trade – quite different than rest b. Settled agriculture and skilled metalwork had spread c. Market life key for men and women d. Professional merchants controlled trade 3. Population – least known – by 1500 – 30 to 60 million people D. Arrival of Islam 1. Land conquered and reconquered by Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Vandals a. Cyrene and Carthage became huge trading centers 2. 640-700 CE – Muslim followers spread across Africa a. by 670, controlled Ifriqiya – Tunisia > Africa 1. Arabs called n.east Arica > Ifriqiya and west – Maghrib b. When Abbasid dynasty united – many conversions 3. 11 th

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