Chapter9 - Chapter 9 Civilization in Eastern Europe Byzantium and Orthodox Europe I Introduction A Two major civilizations 1 Byzantine Orthodox

Chapter9 - Chapter 9 Civilization in Eastern Europe...

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Chapter 9 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe I. Introduction A. Two major civilizations 1. Byzantine – Orthodox Christianity a. Maintained high level of political, economic, cultural life b. Leaders saw selves as Roman Emperors c. Empire lasted for 1000 years until Turkish invaders d. Constantinople – most opulent, important city in Europe e. Spread civilization to previously uncivilized areas i. Russia, Balkans ii. Russia inherits empire from Byzantine 2. West – Catholicism B. Similarities 1. Both influenced by Islam 2. Both civilizations spread northward 3. Polytheism gave way to monotheism a. Some syncretism – old religious beliefs maintained 4. Northern areas struggled for political definition 5. New trading activities – N. South 6. Looked back to Greco-Roman past – borrowed C. Differences 1. Different, sometimes hostile versions of Christianity 2. Little mutual contact a. Trade didn’t go east/west 3. East more advanced politically, culturally, economically II. The Byzantine Empire A. Origins of the Empire 1. 4 th century CE – eastern capital Constantinople - Constantine a. elegant buildings b. Christian churches c. Greek becomes used language – Latin looked at as inferior d. High levels of commerce e. Recruited armies from barbarians f. Emperor kept separate B. Justinian’s Achievements 1. 533 – a “moron” tried to reconquer western territory 2. Successes a. Rebuilding Constantinople – architecture – Hagia Sophia b. Codification of Roman Law i. reduced confusion ii. organized empire iii. spread Roman legal principles c. W/ general Belisarius – conquered N. Africa 3. Failures a. Unable to take/hold Italian empire b. Westward expansion weakened his empire 1. Persian forces attacked from East 2. New tax pressure C. Arab Pressure and the Empire’s Defenses 1. New focus after Justinian – defending boundaries a. Withstood invasions of Arab Muslims in 7 th century 1. Greek fire devastated Arab ships
2. Even though victory, but…

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