Chapter10 - Chapter 10 A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe I Introduction A Middle Ages Medieval 1 Gradual recovery from Romes collapse 2

Chapter10 - Chapter 10 A New Civilization Emerges in...

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Chapter 10 A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe I. Introduction A. Middle Ages – Medieval 1. Gradual recovery from Rome’s collapse 2. Growing interaction with other societies B. Spread of religious beliefs 1. Most polytheistic converted from Christianity 2. Some continued to believe in magic/supernatural spirits C. Knowledge from trade/invaders 1. Tools for new crops 2. European paper factory 3. Arabs – math, science, philosophy D. Took more from other nations than contributed – one-sided trade E. Two Images 1. Prejudice toward Europe – big, smelly, hairy lugs a. Newer to civilization b. Economy less advanced c. Manners less polished 2. Flashes of brilliance a. Thomas Aquinas – sum up knowledge of man, God, nature II. Stages of Postclassical Development A. Rome’s decline affected 1. Italy fragmented 2. commerce shrinking 3. Spain in hands of Muslims 4. Frequent invasions – Viking raids 5. Weak rulers 6. Subsistence agriculture 7. Literacy restricted to hierarchy/monasteries a. No additions, merely copied old manuscripts b. Couldn’t understand a lot of the philosophy they copied B. The Manorial System: Obligations and Allegiances 1. Manorialism – economic/political relation between lord and peasants 2. Serfs a. lived on self-sufficient manors b. received protection/justice from lords i. Military force c. gave part of goods/crops to lord d. worked monthly on lord’s land e. some could escape i. move to city/become wanderers f. production low – limited equipment i. Moldboard – curved metal ii. Three-fold system – fallow 3. Obligations a. For labor and land received i. ownership of houses ii. pass property rights to children C. The Church: Political and Spiritual Power
1. Northern France – Carolingians overtook Franks a. Charles Martel – Battle of Tours 732 – pushed back Muslims/stopped Spain b. Charles the Great – Charlemagne 1. Substantial empire in France/Germany 2. Restored church-based education 3. Intellectual activity gradually restored 4. Upon death, split empire among 3 grandsons a. Successors useless 2. Political history from here became regional monarchies a. no single language 1. Separate languages led to national identities - difference b. cultural unity around Church 3. Holy Roman Emperors for German/Italian section a. Rule hollow, means little, regional lords still controlled E. New Economic and Urban Vigor 1. New sources of strength a. new agricultural techniques 1. three-field 2. moldboard plow

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