Chapter12 - Chapter 12 Reunification and Renaissance The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties I Introduction A Vital consolidation changes less

Chapter12 - Chapter 12 Reunification and Renaissance The...

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Chapter 12Reunification and Renaissance: The Era of the Tang and Song DynastiesI. IntroductionA. Vital consolidation – changes less fundamental than elsewhereB. Though isolated, created “orbit of influence”C. After Han – nomadic invasions1. Regional kingdoms2. Landed families with aristocratic backgrounds dominated rulers3. Declinea. Foreign religion – Buddhismb. non-Chinese nomads ruledc. Great Wall divided between kingdomsd. trade/city life declinede. technology stagnatedf. thought looked for magical cures/immortalityD. Rapid return to height under Tang because of1. Preservation of Confucian institutionsII. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang ErasA. Introduction1. Summarya. Sui recentralized controlb. Under Tang – bureaucracy restored, improved, expandedc. Confucian revival2, Sui Dynasty – 580 – return to strong dynastic controla. Wendi – northern elite familyb. Secured power through1. marriage2. support of neighboring nomadi leadersa. Reconfirmed titlesb. Showed no preference for scholar gentryc. Won support1. lowering taxes2. creation of food granariesB. Sui Excesses and Collapse 1. Son Yangdi a. murdered fatherb. extended father’s conquestsc. drove back nomadsd. established milder legal codee. restore examination system 2. Downfall C. The Emergence of the Tang and the Restoration of the Empire1. Li Yuan – Duke of Tang took overa. Former nomadic leaders forced to submit b. Created frontier armies
1. Sons of tribal leaders sent to capital as hostages – eventually assimilatedc. Korea overrun by Chinese armies1. Kingdom of Silla created as tributary stateD. Rebuilding the Bureaucracy 1. To survive, must rebuild and expand imperial bureaucracy 1. secretariat – drafted decrees2. secretariat monitored officials3. executive ran ministries – day to day lifeE. Growing Importance of the Examination System1. Numbers of bureaucrats grew far past Han2. Ministry of Rites – several kinds of examinations3. Honor to those who passeda. Jinshi titleb. transformed into dignitariesc. special social status1. certain clothing2. exempt from corporal punishment3. access to material comfort/pleasures4. Birth and family connections could still help you get into universities, assista. Bureaucracy still overwhelmingly run by established familes

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