ch07 - Chapter 7 Rome and Its Empire CHAPTER SUMMARY When...

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Chapter 7 Rome and Its Empire CHAPTER SUMMARY When the Greek and Hellenistic worlds declined many their political, cultural, and economic traditions were carried on by the Romans in their own distinct society. Rome grew from a minor city-state to become the dominant factor in Mediterranean civilization. Its civilization included much of the Greek and Hellenistic sphere in the eastern Mediterranean and extended beyond it into Europe and North Africa. The Roman empire surpassed the political and commercial organization of the Greeks in durability and organization. . Rome as Heir to Classical Mediterranean Civilization. Roman and Greek societies had many shared elements, but each emphasized different factors. The Romans preserved, and modified, many features of Greek society while developing their own focus. They gave engineering and law more emphasis than philosophy and science. Through mixing old and new factors Rome created a new version of classical Mediterranean civilization. The greater Roman geographical extent spread that civilization to new regions in Europe and North Africa and served as a breeding ground for the development of Christianity. The Development of Rome’s Republic. Rome established firm political institutions balancing aristocratic and popular interests. Rome also quickly began expanding in Italy and beyond. The tensions between expansion and established political values were a key theme by the 2nd century B.C.E. Etruscan Beginnings and the Early Republic. Rome's people were Indo-European migrants who assimilated agriculture and interacted with indigenous peoples and Greek colonists. They were ruled for a time by Etruscans, securing independence around 510 B.C.E. The Romans created a republic to avoid tyrannical control. They adapted the Greek alphabet to form their Latin version. The early constitution allowed aristocrats to control the most important offices. Lower-class citizens had political and economic rights; they elected tribunes to voice their interests. The Senate was the center of political life, with two annually-elected consuls as chief executives. The system balanced the various interests of society, but gave aristocrats most weight. The early economy resembled that of Greece. Aristocrats controlled large estates, while smaller holdings belonged to free, citizen, farmers. Social strife was minimized by written laws, popular participation in government, and patron-client relationships. Rome, without important city- state rivals, and with fewer societal tensions, went on a different military and diplomatic path than the Greeks. The Expansion of Rome. Rome developed a disciplined army based upon the service of citizen-farmers. Lacking the protection of natural boundaries, the Romans had to defend themselves against neighboring
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HISTORY World Civi taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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ch07 - Chapter 7 Rome and Its Empire CHAPTER SUMMARY When...

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