ch10 - Chapter 10 The Spread of Peoples and Civilizations...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 10 The Spread of Peoples and Civilizations CHAPTER SUMMARY The innovations and cultures of the major civilizations have influenced neighbors and more distant peoples. Important breakthroughs, such as agriculture, did not need continual reinvention; they could be diffused by contacts and migration. Cultural expansion can be achieved by conquest or trade and missionary activity . At times conquered peoples influenced their conquerors. This chapter will examine four areas forming their own cultures - sub-Saharan Africa, northern Europe, Japan, and the Pacific islands - but at times influenced by outside developments. The Spread of Civilization in Africa. Although most of Africa's 12,000,000 square miles are in the tropics, much of its surface is composed of savannas, open grasslands, arid plains, and deserts. Large rivers flow to the coast over falls that hamper easy access to the interior. Africa was the home of the ancestors of modern humans and participated in the early development of civilization along the Nile river valley. The continent had contacts with other world areas, both receiving and sending cultural influences. Climatic change was important. The Sahara was far better watered during the Late Stone Age, but by 3000 B.C.E. was turning into desert. The desiccation forced migration to the north and south and made the sudanic region a center of cultural development. Agriculture, Iron, and Bantu Peoples. Agriculture and the use of iron probably spread into Africa from Mediterranean and Middle East civilization centers. Domesticated crops appeared in sub-Saharan Africa before 3000 B.C.E. Africans soon developed their own crops in a band stretching from Ethiopia to West Africa. Domesticated animals were introduced from Asia. The camel, arriving in the first century C.E., made the desert much more accessible to trade and communication. The presence of the disease-carrying tsetse fly limited the use of horses and cattle in many regions. Most of Africa passed directly from stone to iron technology. Knowledge of iron working spread from Phoenician settlements in North Africa, from Red Sea ports into Ethiopia and East Africa, and down the Nile from Egypt. By about 1000 C.E. it had reached the southernmost regions of Africa. The use of iron for tools and weapons increased societal complexity and gave their makers ritual and political power. The Bantu Dispersal. The diffusion of agriculture and iron accompanied a great movement of Africans speaking Bantu languages. Possible population increase caused by the arrival of people fleeing Saharan desiccation forced movement from a homeland in eastern Nigeria. The use of iron weapons assisted their conquest of stone-using hunters and gatherers. After long and gradual migration through central and eastern Africa, the Bantu, by the 13th century C.E., had reached the southern extremity of Africa. Few indigenous hunting and gathering
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
societies survived the migration. The early culture of the proto-Bantu depended upon
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HISTORY World Civi taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

Page1 / 9

ch10 - Chapter 10 The Spread of Peoples and Civilizations...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online