ch22 - PART IV The World Shrinks 1450-1750 Summary A new...

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PART IV The World Shrinks, 1450-1750 Summary. A new era of world history, the early modern period, was present between 1450 and 1750. The balance of power between world civilizations shifted as the West became the most dynamic force. Other rising power centers included the empires of the Ottomans, Mughals, and Ming, and Russia. Contacts among civilizations, especially in commerce, increased. New weaponry helped to form new or revamped gunpowder empires. On the Eve of the Early Modern Period: The World around 1400. New or expanded civilization areas, in contact with leading centers, had developed during the postclassical period. A monarchy formed in Russia. Although western Europeans did not achieve political unity, they built regional states, expanded commercial and urban life, and established elaborate artistical and philosophical culture. In sub-Saharan Africa loosely organized areas shared vitality with new regional states; trade and artistic expression grew. Chinese-influenced regions, like Japan, built more elaborate societies. Some cultures - African, Polynesian, American - continued to develop in isolation. In Asia, Africa, and Europe between the 13th and 15th centuries the key developments were the decline of Islamic dynamism and the Mongol conquests. After 1400 a new Chinese empire emerged and the Ottoman Empire reformed the Islamic world. The Rise of the West. The West, initially led by Spain and Portugal, won domination of international trade routes and established settlements in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. The West changed rapidly internally because of agricultural, commercial, political, and religious developments. A scientific revolution reshaped Western culture. The World Economy and Global Contacts. The world network expanded well beyond previous linkages. African, American, Polynesian, and Australian societies came into contact with new cultures. By 1750 few societies remained isolated. Diseases, plants, and animals passed to new regions. An important change occurred when the West set up relationships producing dependence and subordination in the international economy. The Gunpower Empires. The evolution of new weaponry - cannon, muskets - on land and sea spurred imperial expansion by the West and the Ottoman Turks. The Russian, Persian Safavid, Mughal Indian, and Qing Chinese empires relied on the new technology. Guns also were important in Japan and Africa. Themes: Key themes of world history changed. The impact of nomadic societies declined after the Mongol invasions. New gunpowder states conquered many of their lands. The nomads role as intermediaries was replaced by relations between states and merchants. Gender relations remained mostly unchanged, but labor systems were transformed by a great expansion of slavery and serfdom. The accumulating wealth and increasing cultural contacts created new opportunities in all fields for a few individuals. Drastic environmental change occurred because of the movement of foods, animals, and diseases.
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