ch24 - Chapter 24 The Rise of Russia Chapter Summary. The...

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Chapter 24 The Rise of Russia Chapter Summary. The rise of the Russian empire, unlike Western colonial empires, although altering power balances through Eurasia involved only limited commercial exchange. After freeing themselves from Mongol domination by 1480, the Russians pushed eastward. Some extension of territory also occurred in eastern Europe. Regional states, many differing from Russia, were present, with Lithuania and Poland rivaling Russia into the 17th century. Russia, with its Byzantine influenced culture, had been unimportant in world affairs before the 15th century. Russia then entered into new contacts with the West without losing its distinct identity. Between 1450 and 1750 many lasting characteristics of the eastern European world were formed. Russia's Expansionist Politics under the Tsars. During the 14th century the Duchy of Moscow took the lead in liberating Russia from the Mongols. Ivan III gave his government a military focus, and utilized a blend of nationalism and the Orthodox Christian religion, to succeeded, by 1480, in creating a large, independent, state. The Need for Revival. The Mongols, content to leave local administration in indigenous hands, had not reshaped basic Russian culture. The occupation did reduce the vigor of cultural and economic life. Literacy declined and the economy became purely agricultural and dependent on peasant labor. Ivan III restored the tradition of centralized rule, added a sense of imperial mission, and claimed supervision of all Orthodox churches. Russia, asserted Ivan, had succeeded Byzantium as the "Third Rome." Ivan IV continued the policy of expansion. He increased the power of the tsar by killing many of the nobility ( boyars) - earning the name of Ivan the Terrible - on the charge of conspiracy. Patterns of Expansion. Territorial expansion focused on central Asia. Russians moved across their region's vast plains to the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains. By the 16th century, they moved into western Siberia. Peasantadventurers ( cossacks ) were recruited to occupy the new lands. Loyal nobles and bureaucrats received land grants in the territories. The conquests gave Russia increased agricultural regions and labor sources. Slavery existed into the 18th century. Important trading connections opened with Asian neighbors. The Russian advance, along with that of the Ottomans to the south, eliminated independent central Asia as a source of nomadic invasions. Russia became a mutlicultural state. The large Muslim population was not forced to assimilate to Russian culture. Western Contact and Romanov Policy. The tsars, mindful of the cultural and economic lag occurring under Mongol rule, also began a policy of carefully managed contacts with the West. Ivan III despatched diplomatic missions to leading Western states; under Ivan IV British merchants established trading contacts. Italian artists brought in by the tsars built churches and the Kremlin, creating a distinct style of architecture. When Ivan IV died without an heir early in the 17th century the Time of Troubles
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ch24 - Chapter 24 The Rise of Russia Chapter Summary. The...

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