ch26 - Chapter 26 The Muslim Empires Chapter Summary. The...

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Chapter 26 The Muslim Empires Chapter Summary. The Mongol invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries destroyed theoretical Muslim unity. The Abbasid and many regional dynasties were crushed. Three new Muslim dynasties arose to bring a new flowering to Islamic civilization. The greatest, the Ottoman Empire, reached its peak in the 17th century; to the east the Safavids ruled in Persia and Afghanistan, and the Mughals ruled much of India. Together the three empires possessed great military and political power; they also produced an artistic and cultural renaissance within Islam. They contributed to the spread of Islam to new regions. All three dynasties originated from Turkic nomadic cultures; each possessed religious fervor and zeal for conversion. They built empires through military conquest based upon the effective use of firearms. Each was ruled by an absolute monarch and drew revenues from taxation of agrarian populations. There were differences. The Mughals ruled mostly non-Muslim peoples, the Safavids mostly Muslims, and the Ottomans a mixture of Muslims and Christians. The Safavids were Shi'a Muslims; the others were Sunni. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders. The Turkic peoples entered Anatolia after the Mongols defeated the Seljuks of eastern Anatolia in the mid-13th century. After a period of turmoil the Ottomans secured dominance. During the 14th and 15th centuries they moved into the Balkans. In 1453 they captured Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire. During the next two centuries they brought their rule to much of the Middle East, North Africa, and southeastern Europe. Their navy dominated the eastern Mediterranean. Even though the Ottomans failed to capture Vienna in 16th and 17th century sieges, they continued as a serious threat to Western Europe. A State Geared to Warfare. Military leaders had a dominant role in the Ottoman state, a polity geared to war and expansion. The Turkic horsemen became a warrior aristocracy supported by control of conquered land and peasants. When their power shrank before that of an expanding central bureaucracy, they built up regional power bases. From mid-15th century imperial armies were dominated by Janissary infantry divisions composed of conscripted youths from conquered lands. Their control of artillery and firearms gave them great power; by the mid-16th century they intervened in dynastic succession disputes. The Sultans and their Court. Ottoman rulers survived by playing off the competing factions within their state. The groups included religious and legal scholars. Muslim, Christian, and Jewish merchants were important. The latter two were "peoples of the book" who often were satisfied with the sound administration of their Muslim rulers. As the empire grew, the sultans lost contact with their subjects. A large bureaucracy headed by a vizier had great power in the state. Early rulers and their sons participated in the administration. Vague principles of imperial succession led to protracted strife and weakened the
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HISTORY World Civi taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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ch26 - Chapter 26 The Muslim Empires Chapter Summary. The...

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