ch29 - Part V Industrialization and Western Global...

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Industrialization and Western Global Hegemony, 1750-1914 Summary. . The Industrial Revolution brought great changes to Western economy and society. The West was able to acquire hegemony - through colonization or economic dependence - over most other world civilizations. All civilizations had to come to terms with Western institutions and values. Chronology: From Industrial Revolution to the Beginning of a Western Breakdown. The period begins around 1750 when the forces shaping the Industrial Revaluation emerged: population growth, expansion of manufacturing, a surge of inventions. The era closed with the beginning of World War I in 1914 because the conflict fundamentally weakened the Western world. Population Movements. The many changes resulted in huge shifts in world population structures as peoples moved from their home areas. In the West and the United States birthrates fell as machines altered the role of children in society. Diversities in the Age of Western Dominance. During this complex period themes of change are not confined to Western industrialization and imperialism. Individual civilizations continued to experience distinctive developments. Chapter 29 The Industrialization of the West, 1760-1914 CHAPTER SUMMARY. The Industrial Revolution created new economic structures; the changes rivaled those brought by the Neolithic revolution. All aspects of human life were touched. European power rose and extensions of Western civilization developed in other lands. Forces of Change. A series of political revolutions began in 1775 with the American Revolution and continued with the very influential French Revolution of 1789 and later lesser revolutions. Intellectual Challenge and Population Pressure. Major trends reversed previous quieter 18th-century European themes. Intellectual ferment was high beneath the calm 18th century surface. Enlightenment thinkers challenged the existing order and opened a gap between intellectuals and established institutions. They were joined by business-people in encouraging economic and technical change. Another source of disruption was the effect of a huge population increase. Upper-class families, to protect their more numerous children, tightened their grip on public offices. Business families were more willing to take risks. Rural families were forced into the proletariat. The population growth stimulated a rapid expansion of domestic manufacturing and consumerism. Youthful independence grew as the possibility of inheritance from parents declined. Sexual behavior, especially among the lower social classes, altered, with pre- marital sex rapidly increasing the number of out-of-wedlock births. The Tide of Revolution, 1789-1830. A wave of revolutions between the 1770s and 1780s reflected the disparity between social and ideological change and the continuation of existing political behavior. Revolutions calling for change, or for a restoration of past patterns, ensued.
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HISTORY World Civi taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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ch29 - Part V Industrialization and Western Global...

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