ch30 - Chapter 30 Industrialization and Imperialism The...

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Chapter 30 Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order Chapter Summary. Western European industrialization fundamentally altered the nature of European overseas expansion. In previous times Europeans sought desired material goods or moved against threats from external enemies. In the Americas they seized lands for plantation crops. Christian missionaries sought converts. Much of the secular and religious thrust was due to a desire to strengthen Europe in the long contest with Islam. Industrialization brought new motives for expansion. Raw materials were needed to fuel industrial growth, and markets were required for its manufacturing production. Christian proselytizing continued, but private initiative replaced state direction. Another change was that the increased power of the West made it fear European imperial rivalries more than indigenous opposition. Europeans then had gained the capacity to push into and occupy territories once closed to them by disease or local resistance. The Shift to Land Empires in Asia. The early European partition of the world occurred in haphazard fashion. The authorities in Europe were little interested in acquiring expensive and unstable distant possessions. But men on the spot were drawn into local struggles as they sought to advance or defend their interests. The slowness of communications allowed officials the opportunity to expand authority and then report the result home. Prototype: The Dutch Advance on Java. The Dutch in Java initially were content to pay tribute as vassals to the ruler of Mataram. They worked to secure a monopoly over spices. During the 1670s the Dutch were drawn into conflicts among rivals for the Mataram throne. Their support for the winner gave them territories around Batavia to administer. Thereafter the Dutch regularly intervened in succession wars in Mataram. They recruited armies among the local population and made them a disciplined force that usually brought the Dutch victory. They continued to gain land and by 1750 were paramount in Java. Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of the British Rule in India. The British experience resembled the Dutch process in Java. Agents of the British East India Company were drawn into local wars as the Mughal Empire disintegrated during the 18th century. Following a pattern begun by the French, they relied on Indian troops ( sepoys ) trained in European military style. Successful intervention in disputes between Indians brought the British increasing territory. The rise of the British also owed much to their global rivalry with the French. Five majors were fought during the 18th century. During the late 1740s the British secured initial victories over fought the French and their Indian allies. The great victory of Robert Clive’s British and Indian troops over the army of the ruler of Bengal at Plassey in 1757 gave the British control of the rich Bengal region. The Consolidation of British Rule.
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HISTORY World Civi taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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ch30 - Chapter 30 Industrialization and Imperialism The...

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