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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 31 The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920 Chapter Summary. Four major world areas escaped the imperialist scramble: Russia, the Middle East, East Asia, and Latin America. Most Latin American nations gained independence from colonial control early in the 19th century. The political culture of its leaders had been shaped by the Enlightenment, but they faced problems growing from their own history. Their colonial heritage did not include participatory government; highly centralized states had created both patterns of dependence and resentment. Class and regional interests divided nations; wealth was unevenly distributed. The rise of European industrial capitalism placed Latin America nations in a dependent economic position. From Colonies to Nations. By the late 18th century Creole elites were questioning the necessity of remaining colonial subjects. The mass of the population resented government policies. Early attempts at revolution failed because the elites feared to unloose the power of those under them. Causes of Political Change. Four external events had a major impact on Latin American political thought. The American Revolution provided a model for colonial rebellion. The French Revolution offered revolutionary ideology, but it was rejected by elites as too radical politically and socially. The slave rebellion in the French island of St. Domingue led by Toussaint L'Overture in 1791 ended in 1804 with the independent republic of Haiti. The success of the slaves frightened colonial elites and made them even more cautious about social change. The final and precipitating factor was the confused political situation in Spain and Portugal caused by French invasion and occupation. In Spain the French deposed the king in favor of Napoleon's brother, but then had to face prolonged civil war. Latin American Creoles declared loyalty to the Spanish ruler, but began to rule the colonies themselves. Spanish-American Independence Struggles. In Mexico a Creole conspiracy caused Miguel de Hidalgo to appeal in 1810 to Indians and mestizos for support. After early victories Hidalgo lost Creole support and was executed. The revolution continued and conservative Creoles under Augustn Iturbide won independence. The new state, a monarchy based upon Creole dominance, collapsed in 1824. Mexico became a republic and Central America, until then part of the empire, divided into independent nations. In northern South America an independence movement led by a Creole officer, Simon Bolvar, appeared in Caracas in 1810. Between 1817 and 1822 he won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. The three countries were united as Gran Columbia until political differences in 1830 caused separation. In southern South America rebellion began in Rio de la Plata under the leadership of Jos de San Martn....
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HISTORY World Civi taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..
- Spring '10