Ch36 - Chapter 36 The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Chapter Summary East European history in the 20th century has been dominated by the results

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Chapter 36 The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Chapter Summary. East European history in the 20th century has been dominated by the results of Russia's 1917 revolution. For most of the century Russia, along with Soviet-dominated eastern Europe after 1945, tried to create a society based on communist principles. The Russian experience had a important impact in world history because of the rise of communist movements based upon the Russian model. Revolutionaries in many societies were inspired by the Soviet model. After 1945 the Soviet Union was one of the two superpowers and for a time its ideology appeared to rival the West’s cultural outreach. 20th-century Russian history divides into four periods. From 1917 to 1928 events were dominated by the revolution and its aftermath. 1928 to 1953 was the era of Stalinism, isolation, and the new Soviet empire. From 1953 to 1985 the Soviets consolidated their power and became a superpower. Since 1985 the communist system has dissolved. Throughout the 20th century prior themes - state power, expansionism, ambivalence to the West - blended with revolutionary innovations. The Russian Revolution. Revolutionary outbreaks, spurred by wartime misery in an incompletely reformed society, began in March 1917. A council of workers, a soviet, took over St. Petersburg and precipitated events leading to the tsar's abdication. Liberalism to Communism. A liberal provisional government directed by Alexander Kerensky tried to establish parliamentary reforms while continuing Russian participation in World War I. Economic conditions worsened and public morale dropped. Land reforms desired by peasants were delayed. In November 1917 a 2nd revolution occurred that brought the Bolsheviks (soon becoming the Russian Communist Party) to power. Lenin took control and quickly concluded an unfavorable peace with Germany. When elections gave another party the majority, Lenin closed the parliament and replaced it with a communist-dominated Congress of Soviets. They control the government until 1989. The revolution faced foreign and domestic resistance. The United States, Britain, France, and Japan participated in a brief and unimportant military intervention. Internal revolution was a more serious threat; from 1918 to 1921 tsarist supporters, peasants, and ethnic minorities unsuccessfully contested their rule. Broad economic distress accompanied the disorders. Stabilization of the New Regime. The communists formed a powerful Red Army under Leon Trotsky to combat their opponents. The army drew strength from its incorporation of talented individuals of humble backgrounds and from inspiring loyalty in the hope of a brighter future. Economic disarray was reduced by Lenin's New Economic Policy of 1921; it combined state direction with the promise of freedom of action for small businessmen and peasant landowners. By 1923 the revolution had triumphed and a federal system, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was created. Ethnic Russian domination was
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HISTORY World Civi taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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Ch36 - Chapter 36 The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Chapter Summary East European history in the 20th century has been dominated by the results

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