ch37 - Chapter 37 Japan and the Pacific Rim Chapter...

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Chapter 37 Japan and the Pacific Rim Chapter Summary. An important aspect of the rebalancing of major societies in the 20th century was the rise to world importance of East Asian coastal areas. The pacific Rim sates - Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong - generated economic growth that joined them to the West as the center of the world’s industrial strength. All tried to blend industrial forms with their own traditional culture and produced an alternative to the Western version of a modern society. Japan, the key, actor, began industrialization during the 19th century and, after defeat in World War II, emerged as a major competitor in the world trade network. The other Asian industrial economies, after World War II, mirrored Japan's success. Decades of Turmoil: The World Wars and their Consequences. At the beginning of the 20th century Japan pushed for military and diplomatic gains as it struggled with new parliamentary forms. Japan was an expansionist power - Korea was annexed in 1910 - extracting taxes and raw materials from its colonies in return for its industrial goods. Japan's Ongoing Development. Industrial advance continued, but Japan lagged behind the West since it relied upon cheap labor and a limited number of exports. Agricultural productivity improved under the lead of progressive landlords. A second phase of industrial advance occurred during the 1920s as zaibatsus, relying on close government ties, expanded into shipbuilding and metallurgy. The Japanese gained a higher standard of living as an urban consumer society developed. Education advanced rapidly at all levels. Economic progress was vulnerable to foreign economic trends. A soaring population hampered further growth in living standards and caused urban social distress. Japan suffered only briefly from the Great Depression as exports boomed and military spending increased. Finance minister Korekiyo Takahashi in the 1930s pushed state intervention in the economy to minimize depression problems. Political Crisis and Growing Militarism. Political problems became important and began a process ending in World War II. Social tensions helped to produce a climate favorable to foreign aggression. Military leaders took advantage of the oligarchic political structure to seize the lead in setting diplomatic policy in the 1920s. They were contemptuous of civil authority and political parties, especially when military budgets declined. They seized Manchuria in 1931 while politicians equivocated. Nationalist groups emerged to support the military. Unsuccessful coup attempts by younger officers in 1932 and 1936 that gave the military a stronger influence in government. After 1936 a series of militarist prime ministers ruled under the influence of General Tojo Hideki. Japan developed a regional empire that by the close of 1938 included Korea, Manchuria, and Taiwan. Japan's leaders looked for wider conquests. Change in Other Pacific Rim Areas.
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HISTORY World Civi taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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ch37 - Chapter 37 Japan and the Pacific Rim Chapter...

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