ch39 - Chapter 39 Decolonizatiorn and the Decline of the...

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Chapter 39 Decolonizatiorn and the Decline of the European World Order Chapter Summary. European dominance in politics, economics, and culture forced all ancient civilizations to reappraise their beliefs, institutions, and traditions. They had to make decisions about what to preserve from their own cultures and what to borrow from the Europeans. Even as European domination peaked at the end of the 19th century forces were building that would end the dominance. Within colonial empires a sense of solidarity was emerging among Western-educated middle class groups who created political parties to arouse mass nationalist sentiments. Most Asian and African nationalists, except in settler colonies, relied on peaceful measures advocating principles based on a blend of their rulers' democratic traditions and indigenous beliefs. The European dependence upon the indigenous elite in their administrations made them very vulnerable to such challenges. The European global wars of the 20th century and the Great Depression helped to erode the colonial order. The resulting social and economic disruptions assisted nationalist leaders to build a mass base for resistance. The Western European colonial world disintegrated within a few decades after World War II. Prototypes for the Independence Struggles: The First Phase of Decolonization in India and Egypt. India and Southeast Asia, among the earliest of colonized territories, had the 1st movements for independence. Before the close of the 19th century, in India, Burma, Indonesia and the Philippines, Western-educated groups were organizing nationalist associations to make their opinions heard. India, Europe's most important colonial possession, produced patterns that were later followed all over the colonial world. The diversity of the colonial world produced important variations in the decolonization process, but key themes were the lead of Western-educated elites, importance of charismatic leaders, and reliance on nonviolent tactics. In the North Africa Egypt was the scene of early nationalist action. India: The Makings of the Nationalist Challenge to the British Raj. The party that led India to independence, the Indian National Congress formed in 1885, grew out of regional urban political associations. It had British support as a means of learning the opinions of educated Indians. The organization was loyal to their rulers; it lacked a mass base or firm organization and was most interested in elite-related issues. The members reacted to British racist attitudes. As time passed Indians developed a common identity that had not previously existed among India's many diverse peoples. Social Foundations of a Mass Movement. By the end of the 19th century there were many dissatisfactions with British rule. Businesspeople were angered by the favoritism given to British interests and products. The Indian army absorbed a large share of revenues and was used widely outside of India to advance British concerns. British officials received high salaries and pensions. The peasantry were
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course HISTORY World Civi taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Open Uni..

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ch39 - Chapter 39 Decolonizatiorn and the Decline of the...

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