Lesson21SpecificApplicationsInOrganizations

Lesson21SpecificApplicationsInOrganizations - Lesson-21...

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Lesson:-21 Specific Applications in Organizations People in orgalilizations are' always judging each other. Managers must appraise their subordinates' performances. We evaluate how much effort our coworkers are putting into their jobs. When a new person joins a work team, he or she is immediately "sized up" by the other team members. In many cases, these judgments have important consequences for the organization. Let's briefly look at a few of the more obvious applications. EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW A major input into who is hired and who is rejected in any organization is the employment interview. It's fair to say that few people are hired without an interview. But the evidence indicates that interviewers make perceptual judgments that are often inaccurate. In addition, agreement among interviewers is often poor; that is, different interviewers see different things in the same candidate and thus arrive at different conclusions about the applicant. Interviewers generally draw early impressions that become very quickly entrenched. If negative information is exposed early in the interview, it tends to be more heavily weighted than if that same information comes out later. 11 Studies indicate that most interviewers' decisions -change very little after the first four or five minutes of the interview. As a result, information elicited early in the interview carries greater weight than does information elicited later, and at good applicant" is probably characterized more by the absence of unfavorable characteristics than by the presence of favorable characteristics. Importantly, who you think is a good candidate and who I think is one may differ markedly. Because interviews usually have so little consistent structure and interviewers vary in terms of what they are looking for in a candidate, judgments of the same candidate can vary widely; If the employment interview is an important input into the hiring decision-and it usually is- you should recognize that perceptual factors influence who is hired and eventually the quality of an; organization's labor force. _ PERFORMANCE EXPECTA'{IONS There is an impressive amount of evidence that demonstrates that people will attempt to validate their perceptions of reality, even when those perceptions are faulty.12 This characteristic is particularly relevant when we consider performance expectations on the job. The terms self-fulfilling prophecy, or Pygmalion effect, have evolved to characterize the fact that people's expectations determine their behavior. In other words, if a manager expects big things from' his people, they're not likely to let him down. Similarly, if a manager expects people to perform minimally, they'll tend to behave so as to meet those low expectations. The result then is that the expectations become reality.
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