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(psychology) psychological science

(psychology) psychological science - Chapter 1 Introduction...

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Chapter 1: Introduction What Are the Seven Themes of Psychological Science? Psychology Is an Empirical Science: Psychological science relies on empirical evidence as a way of knowing about how we think, feel, and behave. Nature and Nurture Are Inextricably Entwined: Nature and nurture depend on each other, and their influences cannot be separated. The Brain and Mind Are Inseparable: Older dualist notions about the separation of the brain and mind have been replaced with the idea that the (physical) brain enables the mind; brain and mind cannot be separated. A New Biological Revolution Is Energizing Research: The scientific knowledge of brain activity has been enhanced by the discovery of more neurotransmitters. Mapping of the human genome has furthered genetics' role in analyzing both disease and behavior. Tremendous advances in brain imaging have revealed the working brain. These advances are changing how we think about psychology. The Mind Is Adaptive: The brain has evolved to solve survival problems and adapt to environments. Many modern behaviors are by- products of adaptation. Psychological Science Crosses Levels of Analysis: Psychological scientists examine behavior from various analytical levels: biological (brain systems, neurochemistry, and genetics), individual (personality as well as perception and cognition), social (interpersonal behavior), and cultural (within a single culture and across several cultures). We Often Are Unaware of the Multiple Influences on How We Think, Feel, and Act: Hundreds of studies show that subtle events in the environment can change how we think, feel, and act without our awareness of the way they influence us. How Did the Scientific Foundations of Psychology Develop? Experimental Psychology Begins with Structuralism: Although psychology's intellectual history dates back thousands of years, psychology began as a formal discipline in 1879,in Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory in
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Germany. Using techniques of introspection, scientists attempted to understand conscious experience by reducing it to its structure. Functionalism Addresses the Purpose of Behavior: According to functionalists, the mind is best understood by examining its functions, not its structure. Gestalt Psychology Emphasizes Patterns and Context in Learning: The assertion that the whole experience (the Gestalt) is greater than the sum of its parts led to an approach emphasizing the subjective experience of perception. Women Made Pioneering Contributions to Psychology: Women's early contributions to psychological science, such as the achievements of Mary Calkins and of Margaret Washburn, have been under acknowledged. Freud Emphasized the Power of the Unconscious: The psycho- analytic assumption that unconscious processes are not readily available to our awareness but influence our behavior had an enormous impact on psychology.
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(psychology) psychological science - Chapter 1 Introduction...

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