American Government Power and Purpose Core Fifteenth Edition.c2 - POWER and PURPOSE amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 1 4:59 pm

American Government Power and Purpose Core Fifteenth Edition.c2

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Unformatted text preview: POWER and PURPOSE amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 1 15/11/18 4:59 pm amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 2 15/11/18 4:59 pm CORE FIFTEENTH EDITION POWER and PURPOSE Late of amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 3 15/11/18 4:59 pm W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2002, 2000, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1990 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Editor: Laura Wilk Editorial Assistant: Chris Howard-Woods Project Editor: David Bradley Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Production Manager: Eric Pier-Hocking Media Editor: Spencer Richardson-Jones Associate Media Editor: Michael Jaoui Media Editorial Assistant: Tricia Vuong Marketing Manager: Erin Brown Design Director: Rubina Yeh Book Designer: DeMarinis Design LLC Permissions Manager: Megan Schindel Composition: GraphicWorld Manufacturing: LSC Crawfordsville Permission to use copyrighted material is included in the credits section of this book, which begins on page C1. The Library of Congress has cataloged another edition as follows: Names: Lowi, Theodore J., author. | Ginsberg, Benjamin, author. | Shepsle,   Kenneth A., author. | Ansolabehere, Stephen, author. Title: American government : power & purpose / Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin   Ginsberg, Kenneth A. Shepsle, Stephen Ansolabehere. Description: Fifteenth edition. | New York : W.W. Norton, 2019. | Includes   bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2018046029 | ISBN 9780393655537 (hardcover) Subjects: LCSH: United States—Politics and government. Classification: LCC JK276 .L69 2019 | DDC 320.473—dc23 LC record available at ISBN: 978-0-393-67500-9 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS 1234567890 amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 4 15/11/18 4:59 pm For Our Families Angele, Anna, and Jason Lowi Sandy, Cindy, and Alex Ginsberg Rise Shepsle, Seth Shepsle, and Nilsa Sweetser Laurie Gould and Rebecca and Julia Ansolabehere amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 5 15/11/18 4:59 pm amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 6 15/11/18 4:59 pm Contents PREFACE xxii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxv PART 1 FOUNDATIONS 1 Five Principles of Politics Making Sense of Government and Politics 2 4 What Is Government? 5 Forms of Government 5 Politics 6 Five Principles of Politics 7 The Rationality Principle: All Political Behavior Has a Purpose 7 The Institution Principle: Institutions Structure Politics 9 The Collective Action Principle: All Politics Is Collective Action 13 The Policy Principle: Political Outcomes Are the Products of Individual Preferences and Institutional Procedures 18 The History Principle: How We Got Here Matters 20 Contents amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 7 vii 15/11/18 4:59 pm Conclusion: Preparing to Analyze the American Political System 21 For Further Reading 22 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Making Sense of Charts and Graphs 2  Constructing a Government: The Founding and the Constitution The First Founding: Interests and Conflicts 24 30 32 British Taxes and Colonial Interests 33 Political Strife and the Radicalizing of the Colonists 35 The Declaration of Independence 36 The Revolutionary War 36 The Articles of Confederation 37 The Second Founding: From Compromise to Constitution 38 International Standing, Economic Difficulties, and Balance of Power 38 The Annapolis Convention 39 Shays’s Rebellion 40 The Constitutional Convention 40 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE The Constitution and Policy Outcomes 42 TIMEPLOT viii amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 8 Representation in Congress: States’ Ranks 44 The Constitution 48 The Legislative Branch 49 The Executive Branch 50 The Judicial Branch 51 Contents 15/11/18 4:59 pm ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Constitutional Engineering: How Many Veto Gates? 52 National Unity and Power 54 Amending the Constitution 55 Ratifying the Constitution 55 Constitutional Limits on the National Government’s Power 55 The Fight for Ratification: Federalists versus Antifederalists 57 Representation 59 The Threat of Tyranny 60 Governmental Power 61 Changing the Institutional Framework: Constitutional Amendment 3 63 Amendments: Many Are Called, Few Are Chosen 63 The Twenty-Seven Amendments 63 Conclusion: Reflections on the Founding— Ideals or Interests? 69 For Further Reading 70 Federalism and the Separation of Powers Who Does What? Federalism and Institutional Jurisdictions Federalism in the Constitution: Who Decides What 72 74 75 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE State Policies on Renewable Energy The Slow Growth of the National Government’s Power 78 81 TIMEPLOT Federal and State/Local Spending, 1930–2012 Cooperative Federalism and Grants-in-Aid: Institutions Shape Policies 84 85 Contents amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 9 ix 15/11/18 4:59 pm Regulated Federalism and National Standards 88 New Federalism and the National–State Tug-of-War 90 The Separation of Powers Checks and Balances: A System of Mutual Vetoes 93 93 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE Federal vs. State Marijuana Laws 4 94 Legislative Supremacy 95 Checks and Balances: The Rationality Principle at Work 97 The Role of the Supreme Court: Establishing Decision Rules 98 Conclusion: Federalism and the Separation of Powers—Collective Action or Stalemate? 101 For Further Reading 102 Civil Liberties 104 Origins of the Bill of Rights 106 Nationalizing the Bill of Rights 107 Dual Citizenship 108 The Fourteenth Amendment 109 The Constitutional Revolution in Civil Liberties 113 The Bill of Rights Today The First Amendment and Freedom of Religion 115 115 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Americans’ Attitudes toward Church and State x amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 10 118 The First Amendment and Freedom of Speech and the Press 121 The Second Amendment and the Right to Bear Arms 131 Rights of the Criminally Accused 133 The Fourth Amendment and Searches and Seizures 133 The Fifth Amendment and Criminal Proceedings 136 Contents 15/11/18 4:59 pm THE POLICY PRINCIPLE 5 The Fourth Amendment and Government Surveillance 137 The Sixth Amendment and the Right to Counsel 139 The Eighth Amendment and Cruel and Unusual Punishment 140 The Right to Privacy and the Constitution 142 Conclusion: Civil Liberties and Collective Action 145 For Further Reading 147 Civil Rights 148 What Are Civil Rights? 151 The Struggle for Civil Rights 154 The Right to Vote 155 Racial Discrimination in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 159 Opportunity in Education 164 TIMEPLOT Cause and Effect in the Civil Rights Movement 166 The Politics of Rights 170 Outlawing Discrimination in Employment 170 Women and Gender Discrimination 171 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE Transgender Rights and Policy 174 Latinos 175 Asian Americans 176 Immigration and Rights 176 Americans with Disabilities 178 Gay Men and Lesbians 179 Affirmative Action The Supreme Court and the Standard of Review 181 181 Contents amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 11 xi 15/11/18 4:59 pm ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Is the Public Principled or Prejudiced When It Comes to Affirmative Action? 182 Conclusion: Civil Liberties and Civil Rights— Regulating Collective Action 185 For Further Reading 186 PART 2 INSTITUTIONS 6 Congress: The First Branch 188 Representation 190 House and Senate: Differences in Representation 194 The Electoral System 196 Problems of Legislative Organization 205 Cooperation in Congress 205 Underlying Problems and Challenges 207 The Organization of Congress 208 Party Leadership and Organization in the House and the Senate 208 The Committee System: The Core of Congress 212 The Staff System: Staffers and Agencies 220 Informal Organization: The Caucuses 221 Rules of Lawmaking: How a Bill Becomes a Law Committee Deliberation 221 221 Debate 222 xii amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 12 Conference Committee: Reconciling House and Senate Versions of a Bill 223 Presidential Action 224 Procedures in Congress: Regular and Unorthodox 226 The Distributive Tendency in Congress 227 Contents 15/11/18 4:59 pm TIMEPLOT Acts Passed by Congress, 1789–2016 228 How Congress Decides 230 Constituency 230 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE Congress and the Opioid Epidemic Interest Groups 231 232 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Why Congress Can’t Make Ends Meet 234 Party Discipline 236 Weighing Diverse Influences 241 Beyond Legislation: Additional Congressional Powers Advice and Consent: Special Senate Powers 242 242 Impeachment 243 7 Conclusion: Power and Representation 244 For Further Reading 246 The Presidency as an Institution 248 The Constitutional Origins and Powers of the Presidency 250 Expressed Powers 252 TIMEPLOT Presidential Vetoes, 1789–2018 258 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE The Obama Veto of the Keystone XL Pipeline 262 Delegated Powers 263 Inherent Powers 264 The Rise of Presidential Government 268 The Legislative Epoch, 1800–1933 268 The New Deal and the Presidency 269 Contents amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 13 xiii 15/11/18 4:59 pm Presidential Government 271 The Formal Resources of Presidential Power 272 The Contemporary Bases of Presidential Power 277 The Administrative State 284 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Unilateral Action and Presidential Power The Limits of Presidential Power 8 288 292 Conclusion: Presidential Power—Myths and Realities 292 For Further Reading 296 The Executive Branch Why Bureaucracy? 298 301 Bureaucratic Organization Enhances the Efficient Operation of Government 303 Bureaucrats Fulfill Important Roles 304 Bureaucracies Serve Politicians 306 How Is the Executive Branch Organized? 307 Clientele Agencies 309 Agencies for the Maintenance of the Union 310 Regulatory Agencies 312 Agencies of Redistribution 313 The Problem of Bureaucratic Control 314 Motivational Considerations of Bureaucrats 315 Bureaucracy and the Principal-Agent Problem 317 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE The EPA: Regulating Clean Air The President as Manager-in-Chief xiv amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 14 319 321 Contents 15/11/18 4:59 pm ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Explaining Vacancies in Presidential Appointments Congressional Oversight and Incentives Reforming the Bureaucracy 322 324 327 Termination 329 Devolution 330 Privatization 331 9 Conclusion: Public Bureaucracies and Politics 332 For Further Reading 334 The Federal Courts 336 The Judicial Process 339 The Organization of the Court System 341 Types of Courts 341 Federal Jurisdiction 342 Federal Trial Courts 345 Federal Appellate Courts 345 The Supreme Court 347 How Judges Are Appointed 348 How Courts Work as Political Institutions Dispute Resolution 351 351 Coordination 352 Rule Interpretation The Power of Judicial Review 352 353 Judicial Review of Acts of Congress 354 Judicial Review of State Actions 355
 Judicial Review of Federal Agency Actions 356 Contents amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 15 xv 15/11/18 4:59 pm Judicial Review and Presidential Power 357 Judicial Review and Lawmaking 358 The Supreme Court in Action 359 How Cases Reach the Supreme Court 360 Controlling the Flow of Cases 363 The Supreme Court’s Procedures 365 Judicial Decision Making 368 The Supreme Court Justices 368 Other Institutions of Government 371 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Ideological Voting on the Supreme Court 372 The Implementation of Supreme Court Decisions 374 Strategic Behavior in the Supreme Court 376 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE Changing Judicial Direction: Gay Marriage 377 Conclusion: The Expanding Power of the Judiciary 380 For Further Reading 382 PART 3 DEMOCRATIC POLITICS 10 Public Opinion 384 What Is Public Opinion? 386 Preferences and Beliefs 388 Choices 388 Variety of Opinion 389 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE xvi amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 16 Is the Public as Polarized as Congress? 394 Origins and Nature of Opinion 396 Foundations of Preferences 397 Contents 15/11/18 4:59 pm Political Ideology 400 Identity Politics 402 TIMEPLOT Immigration by Continent of Origin 404 Public Opinion and Political Knowledge 411 Political Knowledge and Preference Stability 412 Stability and the Meaning of Public Opinion 415 Shaping Opinion: Political Leaders, Private Groups, and the Media 417 Government and the Shaping of Public Opinion 417 Private Groups and the Shaping of Public Opinion 418 The Media and Public Opinion 419 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE Public Opinion on Climate Change 420 Measuring Public Opinion 423 Constructing Public Opinion from Surveys 11 424 How Does Public Opinion Influence Government Policy? 430 Conclusion: Government and the Will of the People 432 For Further Reading 434 Elections Institutions of Elections 436 439 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE Local Control of Elections and Voter ID Laws 440 TIMEPLOT The Growth of the U.S. Electorate, 1790–2016 442 Who Can Vote: Defining the Electorate 442 How Americans Vote: The Ballot 450 Where Americans Vote: Electoral Districts 452 Contents amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 17 xvii 15/11/18 4:59 pm What It Takes to Win: Plurality Rule 459 Direct Democracy: The Referendum and the Recall 462 How Voters Decide 464 Voters and Nonvoters 464 Partisan Loyalty 466 Issues 469 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Economic Influence on Presidential Elections Candidate Characteristics Campaigns: Money, Media, and Grass Roots 12 amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 18 476 477 What It Takes to Win 478 Campaign Finance 480 Congressional Campaigns 483 Effectiveness of Campaigns 484 The 2016 and 2018 Elections 485 The 2016 Presidential Primaries 486 The 2016 General Election 488 Republican Victory 490 2018: A Return to Divided Government 494 Looking to the Future 496 Conclusion: Elections and Accountability 497 For Further Reading 498 Political Parties Why Do Political Parties Form? xviii 474 500 503 To Facilitate Collective Action in the Electoral Process 504 To Resolve Problems of Collective Choice in Government 505 To Deal with the Problem of Ambition 506 Contents 15/11/18 4:59 pm THE POLICY PRINCIPLE Party Coalitions and Abortion Policy 507 What Functions Do Parties Perform? 508 Recruiting Candidates 508 Nominating Candidates 509 Getting Out the Vote 511 Facilitating Electoral Choice 512 Influencing National Government 513 Parties in Government 515 Parties in the Electorate 517 Party Identification 517 Group Basis of Parties 521 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Candidate Religion and Partisan Voting 524 Parties as Institutions 527 Contemporary Party Organizations 528 The Contemporary Party as Service Provider to Candidates 531 Party Systems 532 The First Party System: Federalists and Democratic-Republicans 534 The Second Party System: Democrats and Whigs 536 The Third Party System: Republicans and Democrats: 1860–1896 538 The Fourth Party System, 1896–1932 540 The Fifth Party System: The New Deal Coalition, 1932–1968 540 The Sixth Party System: 1968–Present 541 TIMEPLOT Parties’ Share of Electoral Votes, 1789–2016 American Third Parties 544 545 Conclusion: Parties and Democracy 549 For Further Reading 551 Contents amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 19 xix 15/11/18 4:59 pm 13 Groups and Interests 552 What Are the Characteristics of Interest Groups? 555 Interest Groups Not Only Enhance Democracy . . . 555 . . . But Also Represent the Evils of Faction 556 Organized Interests Are Predominantly Economic 557 Most Groups Require Members, Money, and Leadership 558 Group Membership Has an Upper-Class Bias 558 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE The Mortgage Interest Tax Deduction 559 Groups Reflect Changes in the Political Environment 560 Latent Groups 562 How and Why Do Interest Groups Form? 563 Interest Groups Facilitate Cooperation 563 Selective Benefits: A Solution to the Collective Action Problem 567 Political Entrepreneurs Organize and Maintain Groups 569 How Do Interest Groups Influence Policy? Direct Lobbying 570 571 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Interest Group Influence xx amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 20 572 Using the Courts 579 Mobilizing Public Opinion 580 Using Electoral Politics 584 Are Interest Groups Effective? 588 Conclusion: Interest Group Influence in U.S. Politics 590 For Further Reading 592 Contents 15/11/18 4:59 pm 14 The Media The Media as a Political Institution Types of Media 594 596 597 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Where Do Americans Get News about Politics? 604 Regulation of the Broadcast and Electronic Media 607 Freedom of the Press 609 THE POLICY PRINCIPLE Who Runs the Internet? Organization and Ownership of the Media What Affects News Coverage? 610 611 614 Journalists 614 News Sources 619 Consumers 622 Conclusion: Media Power and Responsibility 624 For Further Reading 627 Appendix A1 The Declaration of Independence A3 The Articles of Confederation A7 The Constitution of the United States of America A13 Amendments to the Constitution A24 Federalist Papers A34 No. 10: Madison A34 No. 51: Madison A39 Glossary G1 Credits C1 Index I1 Contents amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 21 xxi 15/11/18 4:59 pm Preface This book was written for faculty and students who are looking for a little more than just “nuts and bolts” and who are drawn to an analytical perspective. No fact about American government is intrinsically difficult to grasp, and in an open society such as ours, facts abound. The philosophy of a free and open media in the United States makes information about the government that would be suppressed elsewhere readily available. The advent of the internet and other new communication technologies has further expanded the opportunity to learn about our government. The ubiquity of information in our society is a great virtue. Common knowledge about the government gives our society a vocabulary that is widely shared among its citizens and enables us to communicate effectively with each other about politics. But it is also important to reach beyond that common vocabulary and develop a more sophisticated understanding of politics and government. The sheer quantity of facts in our society can be overwhelming. In a 24/7 news cycle it can be hard to pick out what stories are important and to stay focused on them. Today, moreover, Americans may choose among a variety of news sources, including broadcast, print, and various online formats, all clamoring for attention. The single most important task of the teacher of political science is to confront popular ideas and information and to choose from among them the small number of really significant concepts that help us make better sense of the world. This book aims to help instructors and students accomplish this task. The analytical framework of this book is oriented around five principles that we use to help make sense of politics: 1. All political behavior has a purpose. 2. Institutions structure politics. 3. All politics is collective action. xxii amgovc15_ptr_ch00_fm_i-1.indd 22 Preface 15/11/18 4:59 pm 4. Political outcomes are the products of individual preferences and institutional procedures. 5. How we got here matters. This Fifteenth Edition continues our endeavor to make American Government: Power and Purpose the most authoritative and contemporary introductory text on the market. The approach of the book has not changed. Those who have used this book in the past are familiar with the narrative it presents about American government and politics—the storyline of how the U.S. government has evolved, how it operates, and the characters involved in the unfolding development of our polity. This b...
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