L5_water_sources_and_overall_plant_design

L5_water_sources_and_overall_plant_design - Water Sources...

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    Water Sources and Overall Plant Design EVEG 3110 September 23, 2005
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    The water supply should be obtained from  the  most desirable source  which is  feasible, and effort should be made to  prevent or control pollution  of that source.   If the source is not adequately protected  by natural means, the supply shall be  adequately  protected by treatment .” - The 1962 Public Health Service  Drinking Water Standards
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    Water Use 408 Billion  Gallons/Day in  USA (2000,  USGS data) 195 BG/d for  Thermoelectric  Power 137 BG/d for  Irrigation 43 BG/d for  Public Supply 4 BG/d Domestic  Use http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/2004/circ1268/htdocs/figure 01.html
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    Total Withdrawals USGS, 2000
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    Water Sources Treatment Plant Shallow Wells Deep Wells Lake or  Reservoir Intake River Intake
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    US Water Use: Surface Water and Groundwater USGS, 2000
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    Surface Waters Rivers, Lakes, Impounded Reservoirs Treatment Concerns Pollution Organic Constituents & Microorganisms Solids, Turbidity, & Color Eutrophication - Nutrients Variation in quality Extensive treatment & flexibility required
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    Groundwater Shallow & Deep Wells Treatment Concerns Hardness (ie Ca 2+  and Mg 2+ ) Pollution Toxic Chemicals Relatively Uniform & Consistent Quality Frequently satisfy requirements for a  treatable source
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    Groundwater Contamination Arsenic From 1965  to 1975, 4.5  million  wells  installed to  provide  pathogen  free  drinking  water (WHO, 2000)
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    Groundwater Contamination Arsenic Toxicity Acute  Chronic Risk Maximum Containment Level (MCL) Safe Drinking Water Act Death from cancer of the liver, lung, kidney, or bladder Drinking 1L H 2 O containing 50  μ L As -> 13/1000 Drinking 1L H 2 O containing 500  μ L As -> 13/100 (WHO, 2000)
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    Water Treatment
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