L7_Alkalinity_and_Hardness_05b

L7_Alkalinity_and_Hardness_05b - WaterQuality:Focuson EVEG...

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    Water Quality: Focus on  Hardness and Alkalinity EVEG 3110 October 12, 2005
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    Hardness Hard waters: waters that required considerable amounts of soap to produce a foam or lather AND scale in hot-water pipes, boilers, and other units in which the temperature of water is increased materially Caused by multivalent metallic cations Calcium, Magnesium Iron, Manganese, Strontium, & Aluminum
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    Two Related but distinct Chemical  Characteristics of Water Alkalinity Hardness
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    Alkalinity The capacity of a water to neutralize an acid Due to presence of Bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) Carbonate (CO 3 ) Hydroxide Ion Expressed as mg/L of equivalent CaCO 3 , or as meq/L Alk (in eq/l )= [HCO 3 - ] + 2[CO 3 = ] + [OH - ] – [H + ]
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    Solubility reaction (SOLID DISSOLVES ) Equilibrium Relationships Inorganic Carbon Reactions CaCO 3 <===>Ca ++ + CO 3 -- Limestone carbonate CO 3 -- + H + <====> HCO 3 - carbonate bicarbonate HCO 3 - + H + <====>H 2 CO 3 bicarbonate carbonic acid H CO <===> H O + CO
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2010 for the course EVEG 3110 taught by Professor Malone during the Spring '10 term at LSU.

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L7_Alkalinity_and_Hardness_05b - WaterQuality:Focuson EVEG...

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