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Unformatted text preview: Some thoughts on Hardness : Total Hardness (TH) can be calculated as the sum of the multivalent cations present in the water, and us conventionally expressed as mg/L as CaCO 3 . We express it in this form so we can compare apples with apples. Since, for example, Ca, Mg, and Sr all contribute to hardness, but I am only interested in having one number, I have to have a way to directly add the three up. One comparison, made by an EVEG 3110 student today, is that this is like eating sugar. If I eat a piece of cake, a bowl of pasta, and drink a glass of Coke, I could express these three in terms of grams of sugar that I have consumed, which I could add together for a direct comparison. These three items might not be exactly the same kind of sugar, but I express them that way because they all contribute to my carbohydrate allotment. Hardness can also be calculated as a sum of the carbonate hardness and the noncarbonated hardness. In our problems, we will assume that the alkalinity is equal to...
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 Spring '10
 Malone
 NCH

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