Psych 3 - Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition 2009 Vol 35 No 3 822 828 2009 American Psychological Association

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Metamemory Judgments and the Benefits of Repeated Study: Improving Recall Predictions Through the Activation of Appropriate Knowledge Heather L. Tiede and Jason P. Leboe University of Manitoba Correspondence between judgments of learning (JOLs) and actual recall tends to be poor when the same items are studied and recalled multiple times (e.g., A. Koriat, L. Sheffer, & H. Ma’ayan, 2002). The authors investigated whether making relevant metamemory knowledge more salient would improve the association between actual and predicted recall as a function of repeated exposure to the same study list. In 2 experiments, participants completed 4 study–recall phases involving the same list of items. In addition to having participants make item-by-item JOLs during each study phase, after the 1st study– recall phase participants also generated change-in-recall estimates as to how many more or fewer words they would recall given another exposure to the same study list. This estimation procedure was designed to highlight repeated study as a factor that can contribute to recall performance. Activating metamemory knowledge about the benefits of repeated study for recall in this way allowed participants to accurately express this knowledge in a free-recall context (Experiment 2), but less so when the memory test was cued recall (Experiment 1). Keywords: cued recall, free recall, judgments of learning, metamemory One common method of evaluating memory monitoring is to have participants make judgments of learning (JOLs) during or after attempting to commit information to memory. JOLs are estimates of future recall for recently studied material (Koriat, Bjork, Sheffer, & Bar, 2004; Koriat, Sheffer, & Ma’ayan, 2002; Scheck & Nelson, 2005). In a typical JOL experiment, participants are presented with study items (e.g., paired associates) that they are instructed to learn in preparation for a later memory test. For example, participants might study BREAD–SHOE and then make explicit judgments concerning the likelihood that they will remem- ber the right-hand word later ( SHOE ), given presentation of the left-hand cue word ( BREAD ). Judgments are usually made either in the form of percentage likelihoods (i.e., 0%–100%) or scaled responses (e.g., 0 5 0%—definitely will not remember, to 10 5 100%—definitely will remember). In the immediate, item-by-item JOL procedure, these predictions are elicited immediately follow- ing each item during study. Typically, these estimates are then compared with actual success in recalling studied items during a subsequent test phase. The first time participants are presented with a list of items to remember, the congruency between their JOLs and actual recall performance is fairly high. Furthermore, when discrepancies are found between mean JOLs and mean recall after one study phase it is usually because participants overestimate their recall perfor- mance (Koriat et al., 2002). However, when presented with the same items a second, third, or even a fourth time, participants consistently generate predictions below that of their actual recall success. Koriat et al. (2002) referred to this phenomenon as the
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This note was uploaded on 05/21/2010 for the course PHY 303 taught by Professor Warm during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Adirondack.

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Psych 3 - Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition 2009 Vol 35 No 3 822 828 2009 American Psychological Association

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