2006_deer_fairbanks

2006_deer_fairbanks - THERMOELECTRIC DEVELOPMENTS FOR...

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Unformatted text preview: THERMOELECTRIC DEVELOPMENTS FOR VEHICULAR APPLICATIONS John W. Fairbanks FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy US Department of Energy Washington, D.C. Diesel Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference Detroit, MI August 24, 2006 2 View from the Flying Bridge VIEW FROM THE FLYING BRIDGE One Level Above the Bridge Enhanced View of the Horizon See Perhapsatron Mirage or an Widely Encompassing Range of High Efficiency Thermoelectric Energy Saving Applications? Here is the PresentationYou be the Judge 3 4 OVERVIEW Thermoelectric Applications - Now to Near Term Historical Analytical Seebeck Effect Thermoelectric Generators Peltier Effect Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating DOE/NETL Vehicular Thermoelectric Generators 2 Teams SI Gasoline Engine Powertrains 2 Teams Heavy Duty Truck Diesel Engines Emerging High Efficiency Thermoelectrics Recent Quantum Well Results at Hi-Z Technologies Potential Scale up Nanoscale Thermoelectrics High Rate Sputtering Equipment and scale-up challenges THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES COLD SIDE HOT SIDE - I + N P COLD SIDE HOT SIDE Nondimensional Figure of Merit Joule Heating ZT = GPHS Radioisotope Seebeck Coeff. Electron Cooling S 2 T k Thermoelectric Generator Reverse Heat Leakage Through Heat Conduction 5 Thermoelectric Properties of Conventional Materials To increase Z , we want S , , but S With known conventional solids, a limit to Z is rapidly obtained. Best alloy: Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 ZT ~ 1 @ 300 K 6 Nanoscale Effects for Thermoelectrics Interfaces that Scatter Phonons but not Electrons Electrons Phonons Mean Free Path =10-100 nm =10-100 nm Wavelength =10-50 nm =1 nm Electron Phonon 7 Definition of PHONON Phonon in solid-state physics is a quantum of lattice vibrational energy. In analogy to a phonon (a quantum of light), a phonon is viewed as a wave packet with particle like properties The way phonons behave determines or affects various properties of solids . Thermal conductivity , for instance, is explained by phonon interactions . 8 State-of-the-Art in Thermoelectrics PbTe/PbSeTe Nano Bulk S 2 ( W/cmK 2 ) 32 28 k (W/mK) 0.6 2.5 ZT (T=300K) 1.6 0.3 Harman et al., Science, 2003 Bi 2 Te 3 /Sb 2 Te 3 Nano Bulk S 2 ( W/cmK 2 ) 40 50.9 k (W/mK) 0.6 1.45 ZT (T=300K) 2.4 1.0 Venkatasubramanian et al., Nature, 2002. 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 9 YEAR 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 FIGURE OF MERIT (ZT) max Bi 2 Te 3 alloy PbTe alloy Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 alloy Skutterudites (Fleurial) PbSeTe/PbTe Quantum-dot Superlattices (Lincoln Lab) Bi 2 Te 3 /Sb 2 Te 3 Superlattices (RTI) Dresselhaus (Michigan State) 10 HETE Applications 11 Thermoelectric Wristwatch 12 Spacecraft using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators 13 14 BMWs Magnesium Engine Block 15 Power-Harvesting QWTE Power Supply for Navy Wireless Sensors 16 Stryker Vehicle Under Armor Quantum Well Thermoelectric Generators...
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2006_deer_fairbanks - THERMOELECTRIC DEVELOPMENTS FOR...

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