petro_viscos_oil - Oil C nt in Wax onte& Viscosity...

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Unformatted text preview: Oil C nt in Wax onte & Viscosity Viscosity 1 Overview Wax Ge ral fe ne ature of wax s S olid at am nt te pe bie m rature The oplastic in nature rm The C bustible om L iquid at 100 t o 200°F Liquid 100 200°F I nsolublein wate r I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 2 Ove w Pe umWax rvie trole Ge ral Prope s of Paraffin Wax ne rtie Non-re active Non-re Non-toxic Non-toxic G ood r r Good wate barrie C an-burning fue le l C olorle ss Them lt The e point of paraffin waxe ge rally falls be e s ne twe n 120o and 160oF 120 160 I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 3 Petroleum Wax Derived from crude oil or fossil fuel, obtained Derived from the ground. from Crude oil is transported to refineries where it is Crude refined into finished products by complex proces refined ses. One of the many products derived from refining One crude oil is lubricating oil. It is from the lube oil re crude fining process that petroleum waxes are derived. I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 4 Petroleum Distillation Products Fraction Gas Gasoline Kerosene Gas – oil Lubricating Stock Paraffin wax Asphalt Size Range C -C 14 C -C 4 12 C -C 12 16 C -C 16 18 C 20 18-C C 40 20-C >C 40 BP Range ( C) o Uses Gas Fue ls Motor Fue ls Je fue die l oil t l, se Die l fue cracking se l, stock Lubricating oil, cracking stock C andle wax pape s, r asphalt, roofing tar 5 0 - 30 30 - 200 180 - 300 >300 >350 Low-m lting solids e Gum y re m sidue s I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 3 ge ral cate s of pe umwax ne gorie trole Paraffin waxes : f romthelight lubricating oil distillate contain s, straight-chain HCwith an ave chain le rage ngth of 20 t o 30 carbon ato m s. Microcrystalline waxes (m wax): froma com icro bination of he lubedistillate and re avy s sidual oils. havepoorly de d crystallinest fine ructure darke color, and highe viscosity and MP. Vary m m wi , r r uch ore de than paraffin waxe with re ly s gard to physical characte ristics. Petrolatums f romhe re avy sidual oils and arese parate by a d dilution and filte (or ce ring ntrifuging) proce Pe ss. trolatum arem s icrocry stallinein natureand se i-solid at roomte pe m m rature . I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 6 Othe te s use to re r to pe umwax: r fe trole Othe rm d re ring to theam fe ount of oil containe in theproduct. d re S wax containing anywhe from3 t o 50%oil lack re 50% conte nt. S wax containing 1 t o 3%oil conte cale nt. 3% Fully re d paraffin (FRP) wax having le than fine ss 0.5%oil conte THewax that has had ne all of nt. arly 0.5% theoil re d out of it. fine t he I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 7 Wax Prope s rtie P ro p e rty M e lt P o in t T e s t M e th o d D e s c r ip t io n A S T M D 8 7 P r o v id e s in f o r m a t io n o n t e m p e r a t u r e a t w h ic h m o s t o f a g iv e n w a x c h a n g e s f r o m a s o lid t o a liq u id . W id e ly u s e d f o r p a r a f f in w a x e s . A S T M D 9 3 8 M e a s u r e s w h e n a w a x c e a s e s t o f lo w . G e n e r a lly u s e d o n w a x e s t h a t d o n ’ t s h o w a m e lt in g p la t e a u e . g . p e t r o la t u m s a n d m ic r o c r y s t a llin e w a x e s . A S T M D 1 3 2 1 M e a s u r e s t h e h a r d n e s s o f w a x . U s u a lly d e t e r m in e d a t 7 7 O F ( 2 5 O C ) o r 1 0 0 O F . H ig h e r v a lu e s in d ic a t e s o f t e r w a x . A S T M D 7 2 1 T h e a m o u n t o f o il in w a x . I n d ic a t e s d e g r e e o f r e f in in g I HPT 2008 Pe tro. T y p ic a l V a lu e s 1 0 0 -1 6 0 O F (4 3 -7 1 O F ) fo r p a r a f f in w a x e s f r o m a s o lid t o a liq u id . V a r ie s w id e ly 1 4 0 -2 0 0 O F (6 0 -9 3 O C ) fo r m ic r o c r y s t a llin e w a x e s 9 - 2 0 ( 0 . 1 d m m ) f o r p a r a f f in @ 7 7 O F (2 5 O C ) F u lly R e f in e d < 0 . 5 % , S e m ir e f in e d 0 . 5 - 1 . 0 % , S c a le 1 . 0 - 3 . 0 % 8 C o n g e a lin g P o in t D r o p M e lt P o in t A S T M D 1 2 7 N e e d le P e n e t r a t io n O il C o n t e n t http:// re / source Te / st_Me thods Oil content in wax (ASTM-D721) Oil conte or solve e nt nt xtractable in wax can affe ke prope s such as s ct y rtie stre ngth, hardne m lting point, e ss, e tc. AS TM-D721 I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 9 Themomet er ir Pressur Regurator Filter Stick Phenolic Plastic Panel Glass wool insulation Outer case Cooling Tube M etal container 1 litre capacity filled with cooling 10 medium I HPT 2008 Pe tro. All dim nsion arein m e s (inche e illim tre s) I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 11 Scope: ASTM D 721 Scope: Cove thede rm ove rs te ination of oil in pe umwaxe having a conge trole s aling point of 300 C(86oF) or highe as de rm d in accordancewith Te Me r te ine st thod D 938, and 30 (86 F) 938 and containing not m than 15%of oil. ore 15% Note1 With som type of waxe of oil conte e s s, nts gre r than 5% t he m ate , re Note 5% the ay bean incom patibility with MEK re sulting in theform ation of two liquid pha be se I f this occurs, thete m thod is not applicableto them rial unde te s. st e ate r st. Thevalue state in inch-pound units areto bere s d garde as standard. Thevalue d s The give in pare se arem m n nthe s athe atical conve rsaions to S units that areprovide I d for inform ation only and arenot conside d standard. re f or This standard doe not purport to addre all of thesafe conce if any, s ss ty rns, This associate with its use I t is there d . sponsibility of theuse of this standard to e r stab associate lish appropriatesafe and he practice and de rm theapplicability of re ty alth s te ine g ulatory lim itations prior to use . I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 12 Viscosity 13 Viscosity Viscosity : Theprope of liquids unde flow rty r conditions which cause the to re instantane sm sist ous changeof shapeor instantane re ous arrange e of m nt t he parts dueto inte friction. ir rnal Viscosity depends on temperature: - Viscosity of paraffinic crudeincre s rapidly with ase Viscosity de asing te pe cre m rature . de - Viscosity of naphthe crudeincre s gradually nic ase Viscosity with de asing te pe m rature . with cre I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 14 Viscosity Me asure as thenum r of se d be conds, at a de finitete pe m rature re , quire for a d Me standard quantity of oil to flow through a standard apparatus. standard C m viscosity scale S om on s: aybolt Unive rsal, S aybolt Furol, poise and s, kine atic S s or ce toke (cS m toke ntiS s t). kine S aybolt Unive viscosity : m asuring of tim (s) re rsal e e quire for the60 cc of oil in d a containe tubeto flow through a calibrate orificein thebottomof thetube r d orifice ( controlle te p. and as pre dm scribe by AS D 88) d TM S aybolt Furol: LikeS aybolt Unve rsal, But a large orificeis use r d. Theviscosity of lubricants is usually re porte as S d aybolt Unive se rsal conds The (S ) at 100, 130, or 210°F, and of fue oils as S US l aybolt Furol se conds (S ) at FS (S F, 122 or 210 °F. F. I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 15 Viscosity Kinematic viscosity (ASTM-D445 for Newtonian fluid) ν = C*t Dynamic viscosity µ= ρv ν = kinematic viscosity (cSt) C =Constant from calibration of instrument (cSt/s) t = Flow time (s) µ = Dynamic viscosity (cP) ρ = Density (g/cm3) I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 16 Instrument for viscosity measurement ASTM-D445 I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 17 I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 18 Scope: ASTM D88 Standard Test Method for Scope: ASTM Saybolt Viscosity Saybolt Determining the Saybolt Universal or Saybolt Furol etermining viscosities of petroleum Specified temp. 21-99oC(70 a pecified 21-99 nd 210 oF). A spe proce cial durefor waxy products is indicate d. nd Note Te Me :Te st thods D445 and D 2170 arepre rre for the fe d D445 de rm te ination of kine atic viscosity. Re m quiresm r sam s and le ti alle ple ss m , and providegre r accuracy. Kine atic viscositie m beconve d e ate m s ay rte to S by useof thetable in PracticeD 2161. I t is re m nde that v s com e d t o US iscosity inde s becalculate fromkine atic rathe than S xe d m r aybolt viscosit ie s. Thevalue state in S units s dI The Doe not purport to addre all of thesafe conce s ss ty rns. I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 19 ASTM-D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity ASTM-D445 of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and the Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity): Calculation Scope: Procedure for the determination of the kinematic viscosity of liquid petroleum products, both transpare viscosity nt and opaque. nt Measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary vis under cometer. cometer. The dynamic viscosity can be obtained by multiplying the kinematic viscosity by the density of t multiplying he liquid. Note 1For the measurement of the kinemat iic viscosity and viscosity of bitumens, see also Test c Methods D 2170 & D2170 I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 20 Scope (cont.) Re obtaine fromthis te m thod is de nde upon thebe sult d st e pe nt havior of the sam and is inte d for application to liquids for which prim ple nde arily theshe a sam r stre and she rate areproportional (Ne ss ar s wtonian flow be havior). I f thevi scosity varie significantly with t heshe rate diffe nt re s , re sults m beobtai ay he ar rate ne fromviscom te of diffe nt capillary diam te Theproce d e rs re e rs. dureand pre ci sion value for re s sidual fue oils, which unde som conditions e l r e xhibit non-N e wtonian be havior, havebe n include e d. Therangeof kine atic viscositie cove d by this te m thod is from0.2 t o m s re st e The 300 000 m 2/ s. Thepre m /s. cision has only be n de rm d for thosem rials, e te ine ate 300 kine atic viscosity range and te pe m s m rature as shown in thefootnote to the s s pre cision se ction. pre Thevalue state in S units areto bere s dI garde as thestandard. Thevalue d s The give in pare se arefor inform n nthe s ation only. give I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 21 Scope:ASTM D2170 Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Asphalts (Bitumens) Kinematic Proce s for thede rm dure te ination of kine atic viscosity of liquid m roce asphalts (bitum ns), road oils and distillation re e sidue of liquid asphalts s asphalts (bitum ns) all at 60oCand of asphalt ce e at 135oC e m nts 135 60 Note1: in therangefrom 6 t o 100 000 m 2/s (cS m t). Note 100 Re sults can beuse to calculateviscosity whe thede d n nsity of thete st Re m rial at thete te pe ate st m ratureis known or can bede rm d. te ine Note2—This te m thod is suitablefor useat othe te p. and at lowe rm r Note —This st e kine atic viscositie but thepre m s, cision is base on de rm d te inations on liquid asphal kine o t s and road oils at 60 C and on asphalt ce e at 135o°C only in theviscosity r m nts 135 ts 60 and 2 angefrom30 t o 6000 m /s (cS t). ange 30 6000 m Doe not purport to addre all of thesafe conce s ss ty rns. Doe not I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 22 Scope: ASTM D2161 Standard Practice for Conversion of Kinematic Viscosity to Saybolt Univ Conversion ersal Viscosity or to Saybolt Furol Viscosity ersal .C rsion table & e onve s quations conve rting kine atic viscosity in m 2/ s at m m /s any te p. S m aybolt Unive viscosity in S @ sam te p. and conve rsal US the e m rtin g kine atic viscosity in m 2/ s at 122 and 210oF (50 and 98.9oC to S m m /s 122 aybolt F 98.9 ) urol viscosity in S at thesam te p. Kine atic viscosity value arebase o FS em m s d n wate be 1.0034 m 2/s (cS r ing m t) 68oF 68 Note A f undam ntal and pre rre m thod m asuring kine atic viscosity is by useof : e fe d e e m kine atic viscom te as outline in Te Me m e rs d st thod D 445. Re m nde t hat kine atic vi com e d m kine 2 scosity bere porte in m /s, iinste of S or S . This m thod is be re d m nste ad US FS e ing taine for the d scosity purposeof calculation of kine atic viscositie fromS and S data that appe in pa m s US FS ar purpose 2 st lite .m t st rature 1 m /s = 1 cS . I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 23 ACTIVE STANDARD: D2270 Standard Practice ACTIVE for Calculating Viscosity Index From Kinematic Viscosity at 40 and 100 0C 40 Scope Proce s for calculating theviscosity inde of pe umproducts, lubricating oils, and dure x trole roce re d m rials) f romthe kine atic viscositie at 40 and 100 oC late ate ir m s 40 . re Re sults obtaine fromthecalculation of VI f romkine atic viscositie de rm d at 40 and d m s te ine VI o 100 Carevirtually thesam as thoseobtaine fromtheform r VI syste using kine atic e d e VI m m 100 are o viscositie de rm d at 37.78 and 98.89 C s te ine 37.78 . Proce dureA - For pe umproducts of viscosity inde up to and including 100. trole x Proce 100 Proce dureB - For pe umproducts of which theviscosity inde is 100 or gre r. trole x 100 ate Doe not apply to pe umproducts with kine atic viscositie le than 2.0 m 2/ s (cS at s trole m s ss m /s t) o 100 C Equations areprovide for calculating viscosity inde for pe umproducts having .. d x trole kine atic viscositie above70 m 2/ s (cS at 100 oC (1cS = 1 m /s = 10 m /s) m s m /s t) . (1cS t m 70 2 6 2 I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 24 Scope (cont.) Thekine atic viscosity value arede rm d with re re to a valueof s te ine fe nce The m 1.0034 m 2/ s (cS at 20 oCf or distille wate Thede rm d r. te ination of the 1.0034 m /s t) for kine atic viscosity of a pe umproduct shall becarrie out in accordan m trole d kine cewith Te Me st thods D445, I P71, I S 3104, or I S 2909. O 3104 or O 2909 Thevalue state in S units areto bere s dI garde as thestandard. d I F kine atic viscosity data arenot availableat te p. of 40 and 100 oC m m , an e atem bem of theviscosity inde by calculating thekine at ay ade x m an stim iicviscosity at te p. of 40 and 100 oCf romdata obtaine at othe te p. c m d rm from viscosity inde data m beconside d as suitablefor inform x ay re ation only viscosity and not for spe cification purpose S eTe Me s. e st thod D341, Anne A1. x and I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 25 Viscosity Fuels viscous > 550 S at thestarting te pe US m raturecannot be Fuels viscous handle by som fue d e l-ignition pum ps. handle Additive arenow wide use to alte theprope s of oils. s ly d r rtie Theaddition of butanepolym rs or polym rs of m thacrylic acid e e e The e rs can im ste proveviscosity We bsiteof AS TM http:// www.astmorg/ cgi-bin/ S art .e / DATABAS .C . oftC xe E ART/ REDLINE_PAGES / D2270.htm +m ?E ystore I HPT 2008 Pe tro. 26 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/21/2010 for the course CHE 471 taught by Professor Salehabdul during the Spring '08 term at National Central University.

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