PSY295 Week 3 January 19 and 21 2010 (2)

PSY295 Week 3 January 19 and 21 2010 (2) - Lecture 3 The...

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Lecture 3: The Structure and
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Term Test #1 Test is based on Weeks 1-4 (all lectures from Jan 5 – Jan 28) and Chapters 1-6 Next Tuesday (Jan 26), I will be telling you what material you do NOT need to know
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Portrait: Single-Cell Recording Single-Cell Recording Insertion of ultrathin wires into the brain to record the electrical activity of a single neuron Grandmother Cells Specialized neurons that respond to specific objects vs vs
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The Neuron’s Structure Dendrites Collect information from other cells Increase cell’s surface area Dendritic spines Axon Extends out from the cell body Axon hillock Axon collateral - branches of the axon Terminal Button End foot at the end of each teleodendrion
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Synapse Space between the dendritic spine and the terminal button Neurotransmitter Chemical released from terminal buttons that carries the message across the synapse
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The Cell as a Factory
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The Cell Membrane: Barrier and Gatekeeper Extracellular fluid Fluid outside, cushions the cell Intracellular fluid or Cytoplasm Fluid inside Concentration of dissolved substances in the extracellular and intracellular fluid is different
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Cell Membrane Structure Regulates movement of substances and concentration of salts and other chemicals Phospholipid Bilayer Head – Phosphorus, polar, hydrophilic Tail – Lipids, no polarity, hydrophobic
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How the Cell Membrane Functions Impermeable to intracellular and extracellular water Ions Charged particles Cannot freely enter the cell due to the polar surface How do substances cross the membrane? Embedded proteins act as gates
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The Nucleus: Blueprints for Proteins Chromosomes Contain blueprints for proteins Consist of DNA, which consists of four nucleotide bases Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) Double-helical structure
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The Nucleus: Blueprints for Proteins Gene Segment of DNA Functional units that control the transmission and expression of traits from one generation to the next Amino Acid Building blocks of proteins
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Protein Synthesis Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) Carries genetic code out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the ER
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Protein Synthesis Ribosomes Translates the genetic code from the mRNA into a specific amino acid chain Polypeptide Chain Chain of amino acids Amino acids link together by a peptide bond, a bond between carbon and nitrogen Folded polypeptide chain = protein Combination of two or more
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Golgi Bodies and Microtubules: Protein Packaging and Shipment
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What do Membrane Proteins Do? Channels Create a channel or hole through which a substance can pass Gates Some proteins can change shape, thus creating a gated channel Change shape with another chemical binds to them or when electrical charge or temperature change
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Pumps Act as a transporter molecule that requires energy to move substances across the membrane
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