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Physics for Scientists and Engineers 8ed - ch37 - PowerPoint Slides

Physics for Scientists and Engineers 8ed - ch37 - PowerPoint Slides

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Chapter 37 Interference of Light Waves
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Wave Optics Wave optics is a study concerned with phenomena that cannot be adequately explained by geometric (ray) optics These phenomena include: Interference Diffraction Polarization
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Interference In constructive interference the amplitude of the resultant wave is greater than that of either individual wave In destructive interference the amplitude of the resultant wave is less than that of either individual wave All interference associated with light waves arises when the electromagnetic fields that constitute the individual waves combine
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Conditions for Interference To observe interference in light waves, the following two conditions must be met: 1) The sources must be coherent They must maintain a constant phase with respect to each other 2) The sources should be monochromatic Monochromatic means they have a single wavelength
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Producing Coherent Sources Light from a monochromatic source is used to illuminate a barrier The barrier contains two narrow slits The slits are small openings The light emerging from the two slits is coherent since a single source produces the original light beam This is a commonly used method
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Diffraction From Huygens’s principle we know the waves spread out from the slits This divergence of light from its initial line of travel is called diffraction
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Young’s Double-Slit Experiment: Schematic Thomas Young first demonstrated interference in light waves from two sources in 1801 The narrow slits S 1 and S 2 act as sources of waves The waves emerging from the slits originate from the same wave front and therefore are always in phase
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Resulting Interference Pattern The light from the two slits forms a visible pattern on a screen The pattern consists of a series of bright and dark parallel bands called fringes Constructive interference occurs where a bright fringe occurs Destructive interference results in a dark fringe PLAY ACTIVE FIGURE
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Active Figure 37.2 Use the active figure to vary slit separation and the wavelength Observe the effect on the interference pattern PLAY ACTIVE FIGURE
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Interference Patterns Constructive interference occurs at point P The two waves travel the same distance Therefore, they arrive in phase As a result, constructive interference occurs at this point and a bright fringe is observed
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Interference Patterns, 2 The lower wave has to travel farther than the upper wave to reach point P The lower wave travels one wavelength farther Therefore, the waves arrive in phase A second bright fringe occurs at this position
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Interference Patterns, 3 The upper wave travels one-half of a wavelength farther than the lower wave to reach point R The trough of the upper wave overlaps the crest of the lower wave This is destructive interference A dark fringe occurs
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Young’s Double-Slit Experiment: Geometry The path difference, δ ,
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