LO8-_Metabolism - Metabolism Learning Objectives Due...

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Metabolism Learning Objectives Due Thursday, May 27 th 1. How are vitamins categorized? Fat Soluble Vitamins – bind to ingested lipids and are absorbed along with their digestion products. 1. Vitamin A – antioxidant & vision 2. Vitamin D – promotes calcium absorption 3. Vitamin E - antioxidant 4. Vitamin K – blood clotting Water Soluble Vitamins – absorbed along with water from the GI tract (except for vitamin B 12 which has to bind to intrinsic factor for stomach secretion); readily excreted from kidneys. 1. Vitamin B-complex/(B vitamins) – energy & metabolism 2. Vitamin C – antioxidant, collagen synthesis. 2. Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism. Metabolism - the amount of energy (calories) your body burns to maintain itself. Anabolism - the formation of complex substances from simpler forms (uses up available metabolic energy). Catabolism - the breakdown (hydrolysis) of complex substances into simpler forms (produces available forms of metabolic energy). 3. List the overall responses of muscle, adipose tissue, and liver to insulin. What effects occur when plasma insulin concentration decreases? 4. What are the 5 major classes of lipoproteins? Chylomicrons – triglyceride rich; are the least dense of all the lipoproteins and are basically just big balls of fat (triglycerides), with a makeup of about 90 percent fat, a touch of phospholipids, some cholesterol, and a smidgin of protein. VLDL – triglyceride rich; (very low-density lipoprotein) carries a great amount of fat, some phospholipids, and cholesterol. The high fat content of VLDL makes a large quantity of this lipoprotein in the blood undesirable. IDL triglyceride rich; (intermediate density lipoprotein)   are formed from the degradation of very low-density lipoproteins. It enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream. They contain primarily a range of triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. They are cleared from the plasma into the liver by receptor-mediated endocytosis, or further degraded to form LDL particles. It actually refers to a density between that of low-density and very low-density lipoproteins. LDL – cholesterol rich; bad cholesterol; (low-density lipoprotein or “bad” cholesterol has only a fraction of the fat and double the protein of VLDL and is very high in cholesterol. This lipoprotein carries the majority of cholesterol in the blood and is considered the unhealthy one.
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HDL – cholesterol rich; good cholesterol; (high-density lipoprotein, or "good" cholesterol) is a spherical blob of mostly protein, some cholesterol, phospholipids, and very little fat. The densest of all the lipoproteins, HDL is the healthy one.
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