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4-On 'Our changing concept of the world`

4-On 'Our changing concept of the world` - ....

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Change has ever been present. The most important facet in change is the way we  understand the world. There are turning points leading to these dramatic changes: The  Renaissance in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries has given way to the Machine Age  following the Middle Ages. The times of World War II marked the change into the  Systems Age.  At present, we may think that automation is to the Postindustrial  Revolution what mechanization is to the Industrial Revolution. The belief in elements was a fundamental underpinning of the Machine-Age view of the  world. This required an explanation of the relationships between the parts making up a  whole. It was believed that one simple relationship, cause-effect, was sufficient to  explain all relationships. This doctrine was called determinism. It precluded anything  occurring by chance or choice. The world was viewed as a mechanism. All real things  were believed to be reducible to atoms with two main properties:  matter and energy.  The mechanistic world view implied that inquiry can be facilitated with the exclusion of  the environment and, that inquiry can be conducted in the laboratory.  Doubts about the reductionist world view began with the appearance of dilemmas. One  such dilemma was underlined in Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle which stated that in  physics two critical properties of point particles (like speed and location) could not be  determined with the same accuracy simultaneously. Another dilemma was on the  behavior of the machines controlling other mechanisms after Rosenblueth and Wiener  claimed that this phenomenon required making choices and adaptation. However 
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