ch19ppt - 19-1Chapter 19The Cardiovascular System: The...

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Unformatted text preview: 19-1Chapter 19The Cardiovascular System: The Blood 19-2Cells of the body are serviced by 2 fluidsbloodcomposed of plasma and a variety of cellstransports nutrients and wastesinterstitial fluidbathes the cells of the bodyNutrients and oxygen diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid & then into the cellsWastes move in the reverse directionHematology is study of blood and blood disordersFluids of the Body 19-3Functions of BloodTransportationO2, CO2, metabolic wastes, nutrients, heat & hormonesRegulationhelps regulate pH through buffershelps regulate body temperaturecoolant properties of water vasodilatation of surface vessels dump heathelps regulate water content of cells by interactions with dissolved ions and proteinsProtection from disease & loss of blood19-4Physical Characteristics of BloodThicker (more viscous) than water and flows more slowly than waterTemperature of 100.4 degrees FpH 7.4 (7.35-7.45)8 % of total body weightBlood volume5 to 6 liters in average male4 to 5 liters in average femalehormonal negative feedback systems maintain constant blood volume and osmotic pressure19-5Techniques of Blood SamplingVenipuncturesample taken from vein with hypodermic needle & syringemedian cubital vein (see page 717)why not stick an artery?less pressurecloser to the surfaceFinger or heel stickcommon technique for diabetics to monitor daily blood sugarmethod used for infants19-6Components of BloodHematocrit55% plasma45% cells 99% RBCs< 1% WBCs and platelets19-7Blood Plasma0ver 90% water7% plasma proteinscreated in liverconfined to bloodstreamalbuminmaintain blood osmotic pressureglobulins (immunoglobulins)antibodies bind to foreignsubstances called antigensform antigen-antibody complexesfibrinogenfor clotting 2% other substances electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, gases, waste products19-8Formed Elements of BloodRed blood cells ( erythrocytes )White blood cells ( leukocytes )granular leukocytesneutrophilseosinophilsbasophilsagranular leukocyteslymphocytes = T cells, B cells, and natural killer cellsmonocytesPlatelets (special cell fragments)19-9HematocritPercentage of blood occupied by cellsfemale normal range38 - 46% (average of 42%)male normal range40 - 54% (average of 46%)testosteroneAnemia not enough RBCs or not enough hemoglobinPolycythemiatoo many RBCs (over 65%)dehydration, tissue hypoxia, blood doping in athletes19-10Blood DopingInjecting previously stored RBCs before an athletic eventmore cells available to deliver oxygen to tissuesDangerous increases blood viscosityforces heart to work harderBanned by Olympic committee19-11Formation of Blood CellsMost blood cells types need to be continually replaceddie within hours, days or weeksprocess of blood cells formation is hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis...
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ch19ppt - 19-1Chapter 19The Cardiovascular System: The...

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