ch19ppt - 19-1Chapter 19The Cardiovascular System The Blood...

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Unformatted text preview: 19-1Chapter 19The Cardiovascular System: The Blood 19-2•Cells of the body are serviced by 2 fluids–blood•composed of plasma and a variety of cells•transports nutrients and wastes–interstitial fluid•bathes the cells of the body•Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid & then into the cells•Wastes move in the reverse direction•Hematology is study of blood and blood disordersFluids of the Body 19-3Functions of Blood•Transportation–O2, CO2, metabolic wastes, nutrients, heat & hormones•Regulation–helps regulate pH through buffers–helps regulate body temperature•coolant properties of water •vasodilatation of surface vessels dump heat–helps regulate water content of cells by interactions with dissolved ions and proteins•Protection from disease & loss of blood19-4Physical Characteristics of Blood•Thicker (more viscous) than water and flows more slowly than water•Temperature of 100.4 degrees F•pH 7.4 (7.35-7.45)•8 % of total body weight•Blood volume–5 to 6 liters in average male–4 to 5 liters in average female–hormonal negative feedback systems maintain constant blood volume and osmotic pressure19-5Techniques of Blood Sampling•Venipuncture–sample taken from vein with hypodermic needle & syringe–median cubital vein (see page 717)–why not stick an artery?•less pressure•closer to the surface•Finger or heel stick–common technique for diabetics to monitor daily blood sugar–method used for infants19-6Components of Blood•Hematocrit–55% plasma–45% cells •99% RBCs•< 1% WBCs and platelets19-7Blood Plasma•0ver 90% water•7% plasma proteins•created in liver•confined to bloodstream–albumin•maintain blood osmotic pressure–globulins (immunoglobulins)•antibodies bind to foreignsubstances called antigens•form antigen-antibody complexes–fibrinogen•for clotting •2% other substances –electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, gases, waste products19-8Formed Elements of Blood•Red blood cells ( erythrocytes )•White blood cells ( leukocytes )–granular leukocytes•neutrophils•eosinophils•basophils–agranular leukocytes•lymphocytes = T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells•monocytes•Platelets (special cell fragments)19-9Hematocrit•Percentage of blood occupied by cells–female normal range•38 - 46% (average of 42%)–male normal range•40 - 54% (average of 46%)•testosterone•Anemia –not enough RBCs or not enough hemoglobin•Polycythemia–too many RBCs (over 65%)–dehydration, tissue hypoxia, blood doping in athletes19-10Blood Doping•Injecting previously stored RBC’s before an athletic event–more cells available to deliver oxygen to tissues•Dangerous –increases blood viscosity–forces heart to work harder•Banned by Olympic committee19-11Formation of Blood Cells•Most blood cells types need to be continually replaced–die within hours, days or weeks–process of blood cells formation is hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis...
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ch19ppt - 19-1Chapter 19The Cardiovascular System The Blood...

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