ch20ppt - 20-1Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System: The...

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Unformatted text preview: 20-1Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System: The HeartHeart pumps over 1 million gallons per yearOver 60,000 miles of blood vessels20-2Heart LocationHeart is located in the mediastinumarea from the sternum to the vertebral column and between the lungsAnterior surfaceof heart20-3Heart OrientationApex - directed anteriorly, inferiorly and to the leftBase - directed posteriorly, superiorly and to the rightAnterior surface - deep to the sternum and ribsInferior surface - rests on the diaphragm Right border - faces right lungLeft border (pulmonary border) - faces left lung20-4Heart OrientationHeart has 2 surfaces: anterior and inferior, and 2 borders: right and left20-5Surface Projection of the HeartSuperior right point at the superior border of the 3rdright costal cartilageSuperior left point at the inferior border of the 2ndleft costal cartilage 3cm to the left of midlineInferior left point at the 5thintercostal space, 9 cm from the midlineInferior right point at superior border of the 6thright costal cartilage, 3 cm from the midline20-6PericardiumFibrous pericardiumdense irregular CTprotects and anchors the heart, prevents overstretchingSerous pericardiumthin delicate membranecontains parietal layer-outer layerpericardial cavity with pericardial fluidvisceral layer 20-7Layers of Heart WallEpicardiumvisceral layer of serous pericardiumMyocardium cardiac muscle layer is the bulk of the heartEndocardiumchamber lining & valves20-8Muscle Bundles of the MyocardiumCardiac muscle fibers swirl diagonally around the heart in interlacing bundles20-9Chambers and Sulci of the HeartFour chambers 2 upper atria2 lower ventriclesSulci - grooves on surface of heart containing coronary blood vessels and fatcoronary sulcusencircles heart and marks the boundary between the atria and the ventriclesanterior interventricular sulcus marks the boundary between the ventricles anteriorlyposterior interventricular sulcus marks the boundary between the ventricles posteriorly20-10Chambers and SulciAnterior View20-11Posterior ViewChambers and Sulci20-12Right AtriumReceives blood from 3 sourcessuperior vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary sinusInteratrial septum partitions the atriaFossa ovalis is a remnant of the fetal foramen ovaleTricuspid valveBlood flows through into right ventriclehas three cusps composed of dense CT covered by endocardium20-13Right VentricleForms most of anterior surface of heartPapillary muscles are cone shaped trabeculae carneae (raised bundles of cardiac muscle)Chordae tendineae: cords between valve cusps and papillary musclesInterventricular septum: partitions ventriclesPulmonary semilunar valve: blood flows into pulmonary trunk 20-14Left AtriumForms most of the base of the heartReceives blood from lungs - 4 pulmonary veins (2 right + 2 left)Bicuspid valve: blood passes through into left ventricle...
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This note was uploaded on 05/23/2010 for the course BIO 222 taught by Professor Brooks during the Spring '10 term at Prairie State College .

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ch20ppt - 20-1Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System: The...

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