PsychMidtermStudyGuides

- Psych Midterm I Study Guide I Lecture 1 What is Psychology(Chapter One a What is Psychology i The scientific study of the behavior of

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Psych Midterm I Study Guide I. Lecture 1: What is Psychology (Chapter One) a) What is Psychology? i) The scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes (1) Scientific: conclusions are based on evidence; evidence is collected objectively (2) Behavior: interested in observable actions (3) Individuals: humans and other species (4) Mental processes: internal human experiences b) Subfields of Psychology i) Practice (1) Clinical: concerned with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders; interviewing clients, psychological testing, providing group or individual psychotherapy (2) Counseling: interviewing, testing, providing therapy for people struggling with everyday problems of moderate severity; specialize in family, marital, or career counseling (3) Industrial/organizational: run human resources departments, work to improve staff morale and attitudes, striving to increase job satisfaction and productivity, etc (4) Educational/school: improve curriculum design, achievement testing, teacher training; test and counsel children having difficulties in school, aid parents and teachers in solving school-related problems ii) Research (1) Neuroscience: brain and body (2) Cognitive: focuses on higher mental processes like memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision making, and creativity (3) Comparative: study animals (4) Psychobiology: study physiological aspects (5) Quantitative: stats, apply stats to understand behavior (6) Developmental: understand progression from childhood to adulthood (7) Social-cultural (8) Evolutionary (9) Personality: interested in describing and understanding individuals’ consistency in behavior, which represent their personality; look at factors that shape personality c) Levels of Analysis i) Biological (1) Genetic contributions; neurochemical function; brain systems ii) Individual (1) Behavior; perception and cognition; individual differences iii) Social (1) Interpersonal; cultural d) Philosophical “Grand” Questions i) Nature vs. Nurture (1) the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits (2) Nature (a) Plato: children are born with innate knowledge (b) Jean Jacque Rousseau: man is born good (3) Nurture (a) Aristotle: all knowledge comes from experience (b) John Locke: we are born “tabula rasa” (blank slate) ii) Mind-body Problem
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Psych Midterm I Study Guide (1) What is the basic relationship between the mental and the physical? (2) Early philosophers believed the mind controlled the body (3) Rene Descartes: believed in dualism; the mind and body are separate, but connected e) Historical Roots i) Wilhelm Wundt (1) Established the first psychology lab in Germany (1879) (2) Wundt’s students took his ideas to North America ii) Structuralism – Edward Titchener (1892) (1) Reducing complex behaviors to elementary parts
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This note was uploaded on 05/24/2010 for the course PSC 1 taught by Professor Prokosch during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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- Psych Midterm I Study Guide I Lecture 1 What is Psychology(Chapter One a What is Psychology i The scientific study of the behavior of

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