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PsychMidtermII - Psych Midterm II Study Guide Lecture 6...

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Psych Midterm II Study Guide Lecture 6: Sensation and Perception I (Chapter 4) 1) Sensation vs. Perception a) Sensation: detect information from the environment i) Sensory organs, physical b) Perception: select, organize, and interpret sensations i) Different stages of detecting information from environment c) Stimulus: raw energy; light, sound, smell d) Receptors: eyes, ears, nose, skin e) Transduction: raw energy is converted to neural signals f) Senses i) Chemical senses: olfaction (smell), gestation (taste) ii) Somatic senses: touch, temperature, kinesthetic, pain iii) Audition (hearing) iv) Vestibular (balance) v) Vision 2) Measuring the sensory experience a) Psychophysics i) Studying the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the psychological experiences of those stimuli ii) Absolute threshold: the minimum level of stimulation that can be detected; the point at which a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time iii) Signal detection theory (SDT) (1) Measures the intensity of stimulus (2) Physical and psychological state (a) Biology (b) Experience (c) Expectations (d) Motivation (e) Fatigue iv) Judging differences in stimuli (1) Just noticeable different (JND) (2) Weber’s Law: fixed proportions for different stimuli; based on signal intensity b) Subliminal signal i) A signal below one’s absolute threshold ii) Do subliminal messages ever affect behavior? (1) Not affecting complex behavior (2) They do influence quick judgments in studies iii) Subliminal priming: effective in short term; on cognitions, but not behaviors c) Sensory Adaption i) Diminished sensitivity from constant stimulation ii) Neurons associated with sense receptors stop firing 3) Pain a) A sense that originates from multiple places in our body b) Sensations of pain come from within our body c) The sensation of pain is crucial to our survival d) Pain pathways i) Noxious stimuli … chemicals released … activate free nerve endings … neural impulses are carried to the spinal cord ii) A-Delta fibers: sharp, quick pain; short-lasting iii) C Fibers: slow, dull pain; long-lasting e) Brain areas involved in pain perception i) Pain sensory input relayed by the thalamus ii) Sent to Somatosensory cortex and other areas of the limbic system iii) Then sent to the prefrontal cortex 1
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f) The Gate Control Theory i) suggests that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that either block pain signals or allows them to continue on to the brain ii) Unlike an actual gate, which opens and closes to allow things to pass through, the "gate" in the spinal cord operates by differentiating between the types of fibers carrying pain signals (1) Pain signals traveling via small nerve fibers are allowed to pass through (2) Pain signals sent by large nerve fibers are blocked g) Psychological Control i) Factors affecting pain perception (1) Psychological factors (a) Sex (b) Age (c) Cognitive level (d) Previous pains (e) Family (f) Culture (2) Situational factors (a) Expectation (b) Control (c) Relevance (3) Emotional factors (a) Fear (b) Anger (c) Frustration ii) iii) Analgesia (1)
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