RC_vehicle_VSD_submission - Submitted to Vehicle System...

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Submitted to Vehicle System Dynamics , April 2009 Self-Balancing Control of a Four Wheeled Vehicle David Arndt, James E Bobrow * Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine 4200 Engineering Gateway Irvine CA 92697 {jebobrow,darndt}@uci.edu Steven Peters, Karl Iagnemma, and Steven Dubowsky Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Ave. Cambridge, MA 02139 {scpeters, kdi, dubowsky}@mit.edu Keywords: vehicle balance control, stability, contact model * Corresponding author Abstract – For cars or trucks on the verge of roll-over, the boundary between stability and instability occurs when the vehicle balances on two wheels on the same side. In this work, the open-loop steering servo of an off-road type vehicle is used in a closed-loop balance control system that actuates the front steering angle so that the vehicle self-balances and drives on two wheels. A nonlinear vehicle model was linearized about the equilibrium balance point, and classical control techniques were used to obtain a stabilizing control system. A relatively simple contact force model was created in order to model the vehicle’s tire interaction with the ground. It is demonstrated analytically and experimentally that the control law developed for this system is able to retain the equilibrium balance angle of the vehicle even while it encounters significant disturbances. An 8 bit Atmel AVR Butterfly microcontroller was used to implement the control law on-board the vehicle. 1. Introduction Human stunt car drivers are able to keep cars or trucks balanced while they are tilted in the air and driving on two wheels on the same side. The goal of this research project was to see if this capability could also be achieved by robotic vehicles with limited computing capability. In order to
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accomplish this, a remote controlled (RC) vehicle (a “Wheely King truck [17]) was modified so that it self balances while driving on two wheels on the same side. Creating a self balancing driving vehicle is a difficult problem that involves the analysis of vehicle dynamics and embedded control system implementation. Control analysis for simple balancing inverted pendulum Segway type robots have been developed (see e.g. Pathak et al [11] and their references), and the difficulty stabilizing the nonlinear and nonholonomic equations of motion has been demonstrated. In addition, nonlinear models for balancing bicycles and motorcycles have been developed with varying levels of complexity [1, 3, 14, 16, and 19]. Of note is Astrom et al [1] where one of several bicycle models is shown to have a right half plane zero whose location varies linearly with velocity. A similar zero appears in the linearized analysis developed in this paper. Besides being an original and challenging problem, this project could have application to vehicle safety and rollover stability. If the vehicle can be balanced on the rollover threshold then insight can be gained in order to prevent this threshold from being reached.
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This note was uploaded on 05/24/2010 for the course MEC 7658h taught by Professor Madder during the Spring '10 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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RC_vehicle_VSD_submission - Submitted to Vehicle System...

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