Automated_Parking_System_For_A_Truck_And_Trailer - I....

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I. I NTRODUCTION The truck and trailer model presents a classic challenge in the field of control theory. When reversing, the truck and trailer can be modeled as an nonholonomic nonlinear system with state and input saturations. If the angle between the truck and the trailer reaches a certain threshold, the so-called jackknife phenomenon occurs and the angle continues to increase regardless of the turning angle of the truck. Even experienced truck drivers try to avoid turning the truck while reversing it. In our project, we tried to make truck reverse and parallel parking easier for drivers by designing an automated control system capable of parking the truck and trailer by itself. II. S IMULATION A. Modelling the truck and trailer We built a scale model of an actual truck by attaching a trailer to a robot originally used for robot soccer. The robot is cube-shaped and receives two inputs: its velocity (v) and angular velocity ( ω ). The major difference between our model and an actual truck-trailer system is that our truck can rotate in place if the input velocity equals zero. However, this option was never used. Additionally, our trailer only has one axle, located at the very rear. This is how multibody vehicles are often modelled in literature. Fig. 1: Position of the truck (x 1 , y 1 , ϕ 1 ) and trailer (x 2 , y 2 , ϕ 2 ) As the truck can rotate in place, the differential equations describing its movement are relatively simple. The trailer is not attached to the center of the truck, but to a spot at the rear of the truck – coordinates (x j , y j ). If the position and orientation of the truck are known, x j and y j can also be easily calculated. The position and orientation of the trailer can then be described with the following equations: )) cos( ) sin( ( 1 ) sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) sin( ) cos( ) cos( 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 ϕ ω - + - + = - + - = - + - = M v ll L M v y M v x These equations were implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment to create a simulated truck and trailer. Three different control systems were developed and tested using this simulated model before being adapted for the scale model truck and trailer. First, we developed a system that can drive the truck and trailer backwards into a parking space from any desired location. While this system does not have much practical use, it is the easiest to implement. The second system drives the truck forward to a position where the trailer is lined up with the parking space, then backs it into the parking space. This is how trucks are reverse parked in real life. The third control system handles parallel parking. B. Reverse parking a truck and trailer that can only
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Automated_Parking_System_For_A_Truck_And_Trailer - I....

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