Energy in Changes of State

Energy in Changes of State - Accelerated Chemistry LIQUIDS...

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1 Accelerated Chemistry LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS
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2 Chapter Goals 1. Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids 2. Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes The Liquid State 1. Viscosity 2. Surface Tension 3. Capillary Action 4. Evaporation 5. Vapor Pressure 6. Boiling Points and Distillation 7. Heat Transfer Involving Liquids
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3 Chapter Goals The Solid State 1. Melting Point 2. Heat Transfer Involving Solids 3. Sublimation and the Vapor Pressure of Solids 4. Phase Diagrams (P versus T) 5. Amorphous Solids and Crystalline Solids 6. Structures of Crystals 7. Bonding in Solids 8. Band Theory of Metals 9. Synthesis Question
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4 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Solids and liquids are Solids and liquids are condensed states. condensed states. The atoms, ions, or molecules in solids and The atoms, ions, or molecules in solids and liquids are much closer to one another than in liquids are much closer to one another than in gases. gases. Solids and liquids are highly incompressible. Solids and liquids are highly incompressible. Liquids and gases are Liquids and gases are fluids. fluids. They easily flow. They easily flow. The intermolecular attractions intermolecular attractions in liquids in liquids and solids are strong. and solids are strong.
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5 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Schematic representation of the three common states of matter. gas liquid solid cool cool heat heat
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6 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids If we compare the strengths of interactions strengths of interactions among particles and the degree of ordering degree of ordering of particles, we see that Gases< Liquids < Solids Miscible liquids Miscible liquids are soluble in each other. Examples of miscible liquids: Water dissolves in alcohol. Gasoline dissolves in motor oil.
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7 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Immiscible liquids Immiscible liquids are insoluble in each other. Two examples of immiscible liquids: Water does not dissolve in oil. Water does not dissolve in cyclohexane.
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8 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes There are four important intermolecular attractions. This list is from strongest attraction to the weakest attraction. 1. Ion-ion interactions The force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions is governed by Coulomb’s law. ( 29 ( 29 ions. e between th distance the is d charges. ion the are q and q d q q F - 2 - + +
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9 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes Coulomb’s law determines: 1. The melting and boiling points of ionic compounds. 2. The solubility of ionic compounds. : Arrange the following ionic compounds in the expected order of increasing melting and boiling points.
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10 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes Na F Ca F Ca O + - 2+ 2 2+ 2- ⟨ ⟨ -
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Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes 1. Hydrogen bonding Consider H 2 O a very polar molecule. 2 Factors
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This note was uploaded on 05/24/2010 for the course CHM 1046 taught by Professor Lopez during the Spring '08 term at Miami Dade College, Miami.

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Energy in Changes of State - Accelerated Chemistry LIQUIDS...

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