L17-18-2010 - BioNB222 Cornell University Spring 2010...

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BioNB222 Spring 2010 Cornell University Andrew Bass Lectures 17 & 18: Functional Organization of Adult Nervous System Reading Assignment Purves, D. , Augustine, G. J., Fitzpatrick, Hall, W.C. LaMantia, A.-S., McNamara, J.O. and White, L. E. (2008) Neuroscience. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, Mass. Chapter 1 ( P: indicates that figure is in Purves et al ) Learning Objectives: We want to begin to answer the following questions. How does the nervous system coordinate multiple organ systems to allow animals (including humans) to meet environmental challenges so that they/we can survive? How does the brain and spinal cord detect environmental stimuli, interpret their meaning, and then produce an adaptive behavioral response? The best way to answer these questions is to know how the brain and spinal cord communicate with other organ systems. This understanding is also essential to the diagnosis of all neurodiseases. Lecture Outline A. TWO NERVOUS SYSTEMS – CNS & PNS: As discussed in the last lecture, the neural plate gives rise to the Central Nervous System or CNS and the Peripheral Nervous System or PNS ( P - Fig. 1.10A ).
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BioNB222 Spring 2010 Cornell University Andrew Bass B. THE ADULT BRAIN: As outlined in the last lecture , the embryonic brain has 3 major divisions, each of which, in turn, forms the 3 major divisions of the adult brain ( P - Fig. A2, p. 817 ): 1. Forebrain (includes cerebrum/ cerebral cortex & diencephalon). The forebrain integrates multiple types of sensory inputs (e.g., vision, hearing, smell) and formulates commands that initiate complex behaviors such as speaking, writing, and playing a musical instrument. It is the source of conscious decisions as to how, when and where you will interact with your social and physical environment. 2. Midbrain. The midbrain is essential for building sensory-motor maps that are largely involved in the unconscious localization of, and movement towards, visual and auditory (sound) stimuli in 3-D space. 3. Hindbrain (medulla, cerebellum). The hindbrain includes motor and sensory nuclei. As discussed in the last lecture, motor neurons form motor nuclei that directly innervate muscles to form motor units (see lecture 25). Sensory neurons form sensory nuclei that directly receive sensory information from sensory receptors (see below).
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BioNB222 Spring 2010 Cornell University Andrew Bass C. ADULT SPINAL CORD. The spinal cord forms from that part of the developing neural tube directly posterior to the hindbrain (see last lecture and Fig. 22.5 from Purves). The spinal cord also includes sensory and motor neurons. However, populations of neurons in the spinal cord
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2010 for the course BIONB 2220 taught by Professor Hopkins,c.d. during the Spring '10 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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L17-18-2010 - BioNB222 Cornell University Spring 2010...

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