Bioretention Area Design Example

Bioretention Area Design Example - APPENDIX D-2...

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Unformatted text preview: APPENDIX D-2 Bioretention Area Design Example Base Data Site Area = Total Drainage Area (A) = 3.0 ac Impervious Area = 1.9 ac; or I =1.9/3.0 = 63.3% Soils Type “C” Figure 1. Etowah Recreation Center Site Plan Hydrologic Data CN tc Pre 70 .39 Post 88 .20 Volume 2 (Technical Handbook) Georgia Stormwater Management Manual D2-1 This example focuses on the design of a bioretention facility to meet the water quality treatment requirements of the site. Channel protection and overbank flood control are not addressed in this example other than quantification of preliminary storage volume and peak discharge requirements. It is assumed that the designer can refer to the previous pond example in order to extrapolate the necessary information to determine and design the required storage and outlet structures to meet these criteria. In general, the primary function of bioretention is to provide water quality treatment and not large storm attenuation. As such, flows in excess of the water quality volume are typically routed to bypass the facility or pass through the facility. Where quantity control is required, the bypassed flows can be routed to conventional detention basins (or some other facility such as underground storage vaults). Under some conditions, channel protection storage can be provided by bioretention facilities. Computation of Preliminary Stormwater Storage Volumes and Peak Discharges The layout of the Etowah Recreation Center is shown in Figure 1. Step 1 -- Compute runoff control volumes from the Unified Stormwater Sizing Criteria Compute Water Quality Volume (WQv): • Compute Runoff Coefficient, Rv Rv = 0.05 + (63.3) (0.009) = 0.62 • Compute WQv W Qv = (1.2”) (Rv) (A) / 12 2 = (1.2”) (0.62) (3.0ac) (43,560ft /ac) (1ft/12in) 3 = 8,102 ft Compute Stream Channel Protection Volume (Cpv): For stream channel protection, provide 24 hours of extended detention for the 1-year event. In order to determine a preliminary estimate of storage volume for channel protection and overbank flood control, it will be necessary to perform hydrologic calculations using approved methodologies. This example uses the NRCS TR-55 methodology presented in Section 2.1 to determine pre- and post-development peak discharges for the 1-yr, 25-yr, and 100-yr 24-hour return frequency storms. • Per attached TR-55 calculations (Figures 2 and 3) Condition Pre-developed Post-Developed • CN 70 88 Q1-year Inches 0.9 2.1 Q1-year cfs 2.3 8.1 Q25-year cfs 9.0 19.0 Q100 year cfs 12.0 25.0 Utilize modified TR-55 approach to compute channel protection storage volume Initial abstraction (Ia) for CN of 88 is 0.27: [Ia = (200/CN - 2)] Ia/P = (0.27)/ 3.4 inches = 0.08 Tc = 0.20 hours qu = 850 csm/in Knowing qu and T (extended detention time), find qo/qi for a Type II rainfall distribution. D2-2 Georgia Stormwater Design Manual Volume 2 (Technical Handbook) Peak outflow discharge/peak inflow discharge (qo/qi) = 0.022 For a Type II rainfall distribution, Vs/Vr = 0.683 - 1.43(qo/qi) +1.64(qo/qi) - 0.804(qo/qi) W here Vs equals channel protection storage (Cpv) and Vr equals the volume of runoff in inches. Vs/Vr = 0.65 Therefore, Vs = Cpv = 0.65(2.1”)(1/12)(3 ac) = 0.34 ac-ft = 14,810 ft Determine Overbank Flood Protection Volume (Qp25): For a Qin of 19 cfs, and an allowable Qout of 9 cfs, the Vs necessary for 25-year control is 0.38 ac3 ft or 16,553 ft , under a developed CN of 88. Note that 6.5 inches of rain fall during this event, with 5.1 inches of runoff. Analyze for Safe Passage of 100 Year Design Storm (Qf): At final design, prove that discharge conveyance channel is adequate to convey the 100-year event and discharge to receiving waters, or handle it with a peak flow control structure, typically the same one used for the overbank flood protection control. 3 2 3 Table 1 Summary of General Design Information for Etowah Recreation Center Symbol W Qv Cpv Qp25 Qf Control Volume W ater Quality Channel Protection Overbank Flood Protection Extreme Flood Protection Volume Required (cubic feet) 8,102 14,810 16,553 NA Notes Provide safe passage for the 100-year event in final design Volume 2 (Technical Handbook) Georgia Stormwater Management Manual D2-3 PEAK DISCHARGE SUMMARY JOB: Etowah Recreation Center DRAINAGE AREA NAME: Pre-Developed Conditions GROUP CN from TABLE 2.1.5-1 COVER DESCRIPTION SOIL NAME A,B,C,D? woods (good cond.) C 70 EWB 3-Jan-00 AREA (In acres) 3.00 Ac. AREA SUBTOTALS: Time of Concentration 2-Yr 24 Hr Rainfall = 4.1 In 3.00 Ac. Slope Tt (Hrs) 1.50% 0.33 Hrs Surface Cover Cross Section dense grass Sheet Flow Manning 'n' Flow Length Wetted Per Avg Velocity 'n'=0.24 150 Ft. Shallow Flow unpaved 500 Ft. 2.28 F.P.S. 2.00% 0.06 Hrs. Channel Flow Total Area in Acres = Weighted CN = Time Of Concentration = Pond Factor = STORM 1 Year 2 Year 5 Year 10 Year 25 Year 50 Year 100 Year 3.00 Ac. 70 0.39 Hrs. 1 Precipitation (P) inches 3.4 In. 4.1 In. 4.8 In. 5.5 In. 6.5 In. 7.2 In. 7.9 In. Total Sheet Total Shallow Total Channel Flow= Flow= Flow = 0.33 Hrs. 0.06 Hrs. 0.00 Hrs. RAINFALL TYPE II Runoff Qp, PEAK TOTAL STORM (Q) DISCHARGE Volumes 0.9 In. 2.3 CFS 10,049 Cu. Ft. 1.4 In. 3.5 CFS 15,064 Cu. Ft. 1.9 In. 5 CFS 20,574 Cu. Ft. 2.4 In. 7 CFS 26,459 Cu. Ft. 3.2 In. 9 CFS 34,748 Cu. Ft. 3.8 In. 10 CFS 41,221 Cu. Ft. 4.4 In. 12 CFS 47,868 Cu. Ft. Figure 2. Etowah Recreation Center Pre-Developed Conditions D2-4 Georgia Stormwater Design Manual Volume 2 (Technical Handbook) PEAK DISCHARGE SUMMARY JOB: Etowah Recreation Center DRAINAGE AREA NAME: Post-Development Conditions GROUP COVER DESCRIPTION SOIL NAME A,B,C,D? open space (good cond.) woods (good cond.) impervious C C C EWB 3-Jan-00 CN from TABLE 2.1.5-1 AREA (In acres) 0.50 Ac. 0.60 Ac. 1.90 Ac. 74 70 98 AREA SUBTOTALS: Time of Concentration 2-Yr 24 Hr Rainfall = 4.1 In 3.00 Ac. Slope Tt (Hrs) 1.50% 0.14 Hrs Surface Cover Cross Section dense grass Sheet Flow Manning 'n' Wetted Per 'n'=0.24 Flow Length Avg Velocity 50 Ft. Shallow Flow paved 600 Ft. 2.87 F.P.S. 2.00% 0.06 Hrs. Channel Flow Hydraulic Radius =0.75 'n'=0.024 X-S estimated WP estimated 50 Ft. 7.25 F.P.S. 2.00% 0.00 Hrs. Total Area in Acres = Weighted CN = Time Of Concentration = Pond Factor = STORM 1 Year 2 Year 5 Year 10 Year 25 Year 50 Year 100 Year 3.00 Ac. 88 0.20 Hrs. 1 Precipitation (P) inches 3.4 In. 4.1 In. 4.8 In. 5.5 In. 6.5 In. 7.2 In. 7.9 In. Total Sheet Total Shallow Flow= Flow= 0.14 Hrs. 0.06 Hrs. RAINFALL TYPE II Runoff Qp, PEAK (Q) DISCHARGE 2.1 In. 8.1 CFS 2.8 In. 10.6 CFS 3.5 In. 13 CFS 4.2 In. 16 CFS 5.1 In. 19 CFS 5.8 In. 22 CFS 6.5 In. 25 CFS Total Channel Flow = 0.00 Hrs. TOTAL STORM Volumes 23,320 Cu. Ft. 30,527 Cu. Ft. 37,890 Cu. Ft. 45,356 Cu. Ft. 55,422 Cu. Ft. 63,030 Cu. Ft. 70,676 Cu. Ft. Figure 3. Etowah Recreation Center Post-Developed Conditions Volume 2 (Technical Handbook) Georgia Stormwater Management Manual D2-5 Step 2 -- Determine if the development site and conditions are appropriate for the use of a bioretention area. Site Specific Data: Existing ground elevation at the facility location is 922.0 feet, mean sea level. Soil boring observations reveal that the seasonally high water table is at 913.0 feet and underlying soil is silt loam (ML). Adjacent creek invert is at 912.0 feet. Step 3 -- Confirm local design criteria and applicability There are no additional local criteria that must be met for this design. Step 4 -- Compute WQv peak discharge (Qwq) Step 5 -- Size flow diversion structure, if needed Bioretention areas can be either on or off-line. On-line facilities are generally sized to receive, but not necessarily treat, the 25-year event. Off-line facilities are designed to receive a more or less exact flow rate through a weir, channel, manhole, “flow splitter”, etc. This facility is situated to receive direct runoff from grass areas and parking lot curb openings and piping for the 25-year event (19.0 cfs), and no special flow diversion structure is incorporated. Step 6 -- Determine size of bioretention ponding / filter area Af = (WQv) (df) / [ (k) (hf + df) (tf)] Where: Af = surface area of filter bed (ft ) df = filter bed depth (ft) k= coefficient of permeability of filter media (ft/day) average height of water above filter bed (ft) hf = tf = design filter bed drain time (days) (48 hours is recommended) Af = (8,102 ft )(5’) / [(0.5’/day) (0.25’ + 5’) (2 days)] (With k = 0.5'/day, hf = 0.25’, tf = 2 days) Af = 7,716 sq ft Step 7 -- Set design elevations and dimensions of facility Assume a roughly 2 to 1 rectangular shape. Given a filter area requirement of 7,716 sq ft, say facility is roughly 65' by 120'. See Figure 5. Set top of facility at 921.0 feet, with the berm at 922.0 feet. The facility is 5' deep, which will allow 3' of freeboard over the seasonally high water table. See Figure 6 for a typical section of the facility. Step 8 -- Design conveyance to facility (off-line systems) This facility is not designed as an off-line system. 3 2 D2-6 Georgia Stormwater Design Manual Volume 2 (Technical Handbook) Figure 5. Plan View of Bioretention Facility Figure 6. Typical Section of Bioretention Facility Volume 2 (Technical Handbook) Georgia Stormwater Management Manual D2-7 Step 9 -- Design pretreatment Pretreat with a grass channel, based on guidance provided in Table 2, below. For a 3.0 acre drainage area, 63% imperviousness, and slope less than 2.0%, provide a 90' grass channel at 1.5% slope. The value from Table 2 is 30' for a one acre drainage area. Table 2 Pretreatment Grass Channel Guidance for 1.0 Acre Drainage Area (Adapted from Claytor and Schueler, 1996) Parameter Slope ≤ 33% Impervious ≤2% ≥2% Between 34% & 66% Impervious ≤2% ≥2% ≥ 67% Impervious ≤2% ≥2% Notes Max slope = 4% Assumes a 2’ wide bottom width Grassed channel min. length (feet) 25 40 30 45 35 50 Step 10 -- Size underdrain area Base underdrain design on 10% of the Af or 772 sq ft. Using 6" perforated plastic pipes surrounded by a three-foot-wide gravel bed, 10' on center (o.c.). See Figures 5 and 6 . (772 sq ft)/3' per foot of underdrain = 257’, say 260’ of perforated underdrain Step 11 – Design emergency overflow To ensure against the planting media clogging, design a small ornamental stone window of 2" to 5" stone connected directly to the sand filter layer. This area is based on 5% of the Af or 386 sq ft. Say 14' by 28'. See Figures 5 and 6. The parking area, curb and gutter is sized to convey the 25-year event to the facility. Should filtering rates become reduced due to facility age or poor maintenance, an overflow weir is provided to pass the 25-year event. Size this weir with 6" of head, using the weir equation. Q = CLH 3/2 W here C = 2.65 (smooth crested grass weir) Q = 19.0 cfs H = 6" Solve for L: L = Q / [(C) (H )] or (19.0 cfs) / [(2.65) (.5) ] = 20.3' (say 20') 3/2 1.5 Outlet protection in the form of riprap or a plunge pool/stilling basin should be provided to ensure non-erosive velocities. See Figures 5 and 6. Step 12 – Prepare Vegetation and Landscaping Plan Choose plants based on factors such as whether native or not, resistance to drought and inundation, cost, aesthetics, maintenance, etc. Select species locations (i.e., on center planting distances) so species will not “shade out” one another. Do not plant trees and shrubs with extensive root systems near pipe work. A potential plant list is presented in Appendix F. D2-8 Georgia Stormwater Design Manual Volume 2 (Technical Handbook) ...
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