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Chem 416 Lecture Notes - fr In 119d a 190 JO 113.1de 0...

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Unformatted text preview: fr In; 119d a 190 JO 113.1de 0 “$920 (‘1! no 313119 was noA Kaguag Jopaoql JOSSQJOJJ l 6;o:»3&/~n~ooa ‘YVf)37\A‘)\/v\ 9&qn‘Wq/Jfl ’7\ m31m mm<m Amwo Ragga—91 manm3Mm33m31n 3.1 <3 m 8 mAmnH33m .3: .158 03 Em: 11.3.13 A3 m a“; <m.1mA03 A<<3A.n_1.. m2m3.mmm 1?. m .1.. _m<m_m 03 E3323 5135 m m A.<<_1.m.1m 1.2133329? 333”. _. "gnuvyuu Ul \.I-\.L,l 25 50 75 100 Z 1.20 A more detailed portrayal of the energy levels of many—electron atoms in the periodic table. The inset Shows a magnified view of the order near Z »= 20. .wherethe. elements begin. mamas—«mm m>wr~ '10 0 . KCaScTi VCrMn FeCo NiCuZnGaGe FIG. 25. Ionization energies of the elements of the first long period. Consecutive ionization energies increase so that the first ionization energies lie on the bottom line and the fourth ionization energies (where known) on the top line. Energy of orbitals 3d ///////// FIG. 26. The stabilization of the 3d orbitals on crossing the transition series. - / _I . -# y x / s orbital Figure [LI Angular wave functions of s. p. d. and an 1' orbital showing signs of the wave functions in different lobes and indicating nodal planes with dark planes or solid lines. F rorn Chemical Structure and Bonding by R. L. DeKock and H. B. Gray. Copyright if 1980 by Beniamin/(‘ummings Publishing Company. Reprinted by penniss—ion. The Underlyifl‘ Reasons for Periodic Trends (a) Carbon 2P2: orbital (b) Chlorine 3p; orbital Fifi I? 'E 14.5 EWFQfl-é em 1"? mtfigr maps [95" Vfiflflfis oflfilflls. Adapted from E. A. Ogryrlo and or y (c) Titain-ium mafia whilst] (a) Tilanium 3d; orlmzl 6. Ba Patter, J. Chem 3%., 40, 255(1963); Reprinted-mm pemi'SSian. CHAPTER 11 (b) Figure 11.7 Cross-section sketches in the x-y plane of (a) the 4dx2_,2 orbital; (b) the 5de orbital; , (c) the Ss orbital. to the shielding ability of the core ls electrens 'i‘hus we might want to use in equation (11.1), not Z, the true nuclear charge, but as: “up“ re nuclear charge Z*, that IS less than Z by the sum of the screening constants: ei the inner orbitals: 2* =z — ZS .; ' < (11.2) But the 2s electrOn of lithium does not lei, ;: ye as if it were experiencing evactiy a +1 charge either: Its properties are more consistent with those of an electron feeling an effective nuclear Charge of +1 279 This difference can be explained by the fact that the 2s orbital has two maxima in its radial probability function (Figure 11.5) and by the fact that the lesser of these penetrates within the maximum of the % i a g i X‘lifl.” to? 0.5 n=2 ”:1 x10" x10" ' Ls 6 0, 1.0 ‘ 5 (=0 o_5 )rtlttw‘i"I 4 03‘; g zoo 4w 0.1; ~> o r - 3 we mo °"' 0", 2 xlo" l 0.4 X")‘2 l=l 0.2 0.! O 0 V 7 o M r 200 400 600 800 200 400 600 800 (m) zoo 490 610.0 aoo. we (pm) (pm). Fig. 2.3 Radial part of the hydrogen eigenfunctions for n = l, 2, 3. [From “Atomic Spectra ancili Atomic Structure,” by Gerhard Herzberg, through permission of the publisher.] n = l I! = 2 x106 40 30 5 {“0 20 100 _ IO 90 r 0 400 600 300 so . )(ll)6 10 7o r11” 60 60 I so so 40 4o 30 _ 30 20 20 no no 0 r 0 200 400 (pm) (pm) 400600 800 Dover Publications, Inc, New Yank, 1W. Rapfiim‘ed: in=3c ¥ ‘ ' r 400 600 800 woo-woo moo (pin) Fig. 2.5 Radial probability functions for n = l, 2, 3 for the hydrogen atom. The function gives the probability of finding the electron in a spherical shell of thickness air at a distance r from the nucleus. [From “Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure,” by Gerhard Herzberg, Dover Publications, Inc, New York, 1944. Reprinted through permission of the publisher.] um. Fig. 2.4 Volume of shell of thickness dr. ...
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