chapter3_cq--C

chapter3_cq--C - Principles of Comparative Politics Chapter...

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Principles of Comparative Politics Chapter 3: What Is Politics?
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What Is Politics? Politics is the subset of human behavior that involves the use of power or influence. Power is involved when people can’t accomplish their goals without: Trying to influence the behavior of others. Trying to wrestle free of the influence of others.
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Exit, Voice, and Loyalty Use a reformulation of Albert Hirschman’s 1970 classic Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States to understand the central characteristics of politics. Game theory Game theory is a tool, not a theory.
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Exit, Voice, and Loyalty Game What do you do when there is a deleterious change in your environment? Fuel efficient cars are suddenly imported from Japan. The national currency drops in value. The Supreme Court rules that prayer in public schools is unconstitutional. The quality of peaches at your local fruit stand declines. The state decides to outlaw handguns. These are not necessarily bad for everyone!
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Three Possible Responses Exit Accept that there has been a deleterious change in your environment and alter your behavior to achieve the best outcome possible given your new environment. Voice Use your “voice” (complain, protest, lobby, take direct action) to try to change the environment back to its original condition. Loyalty Accept the fact that your environment has changed and make no changes to your behavior.
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Examples Stimulus Exit Voice Loyalty Increase in taxes Reallocate portfolio to avoid tax increase. Organize tax revolt. Pay tax, keep mouth shut. Peaches start to taste lousy Buy mangoes. Complain to store owner. Eat peaches, keep mouth shut. Outlaw hand guns Move to Idaho. Join NRA, militia group. Turn in guns, keep mouth shut.
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When Is Behavior “Political”? Voice requires influence. In order to change one’s environment, one typically needs to change the behavior of other people . . . so . . . politics is involved when voice is used.
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When Is Behavior “Political”? Voice requires influence. In order to change one’s environment, one typically needs to change the behavior of other people . . . so . . . politics is involved when voice is used. But it’s also involved whenever voice is considered. The decision whether to respond with exit, voice, or loyalty is a “political” decision. This means that politics doesn’t just begin when voice is chosen.
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How should a citizen respond to a deleterious change in his or her environment? When should a citizen choose to exit, use voice,
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chapter3_cq--C - Principles of Comparative Politics Chapter...

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