chapter8_cq--LV (1)

chapter8_cq--LV (1) - Principles of Comparative Politics...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Chapter 8: Democratic Transitions Principles of Comparative Politics
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Overview Number of independent countries in the world has grown from 67 in 1946 to 190 in 2000. Only since 1992 has the number of democracies in the world actually been greater than the number of dictatorships.
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Overview The number of democracies in the postwar period has been increasing since about 1974. This is the beginning of Huntington’s third wave of democracy. Three waves of democracy – Huntington Wave 1: 1828-1926. American and French revolutions, WWI. Wave 2: 1943-62. Italy, West Germany, Japan, Austria, and so on. Wave 3: 1974- . Started with Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Then Latin America and Africa.
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Overview In the last lecture we looked at aggregate patterns linking wealth to democratization. But how exactly does the transition process work? External imposition: A transition in which external forces impose democracy. Bottom-up transition: One in which the people rise up to overthrow an authoritarian regime in a popular revolution. Top-down transition: One in which the dictatorial ruling elite introduces liberalizing reforms that ultimately lead to a democratic transition.
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External Imposition 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq has rekindled debate as to whether democracy can be imposed on a country by force. Does the success of democratic nation building depend on the identity of the external force? Multilateral coalition is best (French president Chirac). Single country is best (U.S. president Bush). UN (Secretary General Annan).
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External Imposition Surprisingly, little research. Some studies suggest that while intervention may promote democratic reform in the short run, it ultimately produces political instability. Most studies focusing on U.S. intervention have found that it does not typically lead to democracy.
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External Imposition Bueno de Mesquita and Smith (2006) They argue that although leaders of intervening states frequently assert that one of their main goals is to establish democracy, intervention leads to “little if any improvement, and all too often erosion, in the trajectory of democratic development.” Reason: Cheaper for the intervening state to keep a compliant dictator in power than to guarantee that a sympathetic candidate will win democratic elections.
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External Imposition Bueno de Mesquita and Smith (2006) Examined the impact of military intervention on the level of democratization between 1946 and 2001. Findings Intervention by the UN and by dictatorial states leads to a reduction in democracy. Intervention by democracies such as the United States produces the trappings of democracy, such as elections and legislatures, but fails to increase the level of democracy to a point that most scholars would consider these countries democratic .
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Bottom-Up Transitions
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Protests on the streets of Berlin and Leipzig in 1989 forced the East German government to open up the Berlin Wall and allow free elections. The end result was the reunification of Germany.
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2010 for the course POSC 15 taught by Professor Indrig during the Spring '10 term at UC Riverside.

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chapter8_cq--LV (1) - Principles of Comparative Politics...

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