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Unformatted text preview: Live-in Domestics, Seasonal Workers, and Others Hard to Locate on the Map of Democracy* J oseph H. C arens Political Science, University of Toronto S HOULD liberal democracies be able to admit people to live and work in their societies without putting them on a path to citizenship and without granting them most of the rights that citizens enjoy? Most contemporary theorists who have addressed this question have focussed on long-term residents and have answered in the negative. 1 Both the inner logic of democracy and a commitment to liberal principles require the full inclusion of the entire settled population. My own version of the argument emphasizes the moral importance of the passage of time: the longer the stay, the stronger the claim to full membership in society and to the enjoyment of the same rights as citizens, including, eventually, citizenship itself. Political practice in democratic states reflects this view. The most famous case perhaps is the transformation of those admitted to Germany as guestworkers during the 1950s and 1960s into permanent residents with most of the rights of citizens apart from the right to vote or hold public office. Other European states had similar policy developments. People who had originally been admitted under terms which explicitly limited their rights and foresaw their eventual departure nonetheless acquired the status of permanent residents, most of the rights of citizenship, and often access to citizenship itself. As time passed, European states acknowledged that the original terms of admission were simply no longer relevant and could not be enforced. More recently, the European Union has issued a directive that explicitly codifies the significance of the passage of time. It recommends that third country nationals (that is, people from outside the EU) be granted a right of permanent residence if they have been legally residing in a single EU state for five years. 2 In North America, too, where access to citizenship *Earlier versions of this paper were presented to gatherings in Sheffield, Princeton, Montreal and Oxford. My thanks to Andrew Geddes, Alan Patten, Daniel Weinstock, and Marit Hovdal Moan and Bridget Anderson for their respective invitations, to Linda Bosniak, David Miller and Liza Schuster for formal responses at one or another of these occasions, and to all the other participants for their comments. My thanks also to Daniel Bell for a detailed response to an earlier draft. 1 Walzer 1983; Carens 1989 and 2002; Baubock 1994; Rubio-Marin 2000. 2 European Council Directive 2003/109/EC. The Journal of Political Philosophy: Volume 16, Number 4, 2008, pp. 419445 2008 The Author. Journal compilation 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA....
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