lesson4 - 4 Who are you, anyway? Study Tip: Many of you...

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4 Who are you, anyway? Study Tip: Many of you will be tempted to make “flash cards” for the key terms and concepts. That’s quite an undertaking, so I applaud your efforts. Let me toss in my two cents on the process. The focus on many of your cards will be to give a definition of the term. Great. But don’t stop there. The questions that appear on the exam will seldom be of the “define the term” type. Rather, I expect you to know the concept well enough that you can recognize it in the description of some phenomenon. You will see many examples of this approach as you work through the Study Questions at the end of each lesson. So I think your flash cards could help you much more if you jot down any examples that you come across. By equating terms with examples you’ll help yourself when you encounter examples on the exams. Key Terms and Concepts o Behaving machine metaphor o Non-declarative memory o Module o Anterograde amnesia o Hierarchical organization o Mechanisms o Sensory systems o Behavior o Integrative systems o B. F. Skinner o Motor/effector systems o Parsimony o Behavioral neuroscience o Stimulus o Neuropsychology o Proximal consequences of behavior o Anomia o Transduction o Facial agnosia o Ethology o Capgras’s delusion o Comparative psychology o Declarative memory o To understand behavior we need to understand the mechanisms that produce it. Metaphorically, organisms are living machines, and one of the outputs of such machines is behavior. If we wish to understand the actions of a non-living machine such as a clock, we would want to examine the internal workings that make the hands move as they do, chime each hour, and so on. In short, the second component of the genetic-evolutionary model of behavioral biology is concerned with the workings of the body-machine that contribute to behavior. Lesson 4 47
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What is behavior? Before we can really begin a discussion of behavioral mechanisms, we need to consider what is meant by the word “behavior.” Behavior is any movement or posture produced by an individual that influences its relationship to its environment. Thus, a turn of the head is a behavior, but a beat of the heart is not. Speaking, walking, and nest building are behaviors, but digestion, thinking, and hearing are not. Behavior, then, is most directly concerned with the activities of muscles. Movements of the entire body relative to the surrounding environment, or of limbs and appendages relative to the rest of the body are brought about by contractions and relaxations of various muscle groups. Postures also involve muscular activities, but they are of the sort that resists the pull of gravity or the push of wind or water. In other words, although postures do not involve movement, they are active processes relative to the surrounding environment and are therefore behavioral. If behavior consists of movements and postures brought about by patterns of muscular
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This note was uploaded on 05/27/2010 for the course BIOS 373 B02 taught by Professor Dr.danielleger during the Spring '10 term at UNL.

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lesson4 - 4 Who are you, anyway? Study Tip: Many of you...

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