lesson16 - 16 The Trouble with Testosterone Key Terms and...

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16 The Trouble with Testosterone Key Terms and Concepts o Attractivity o Proceptivity o Receptivity o Estrus o Estradiol hypothesis o Testosterone hypothesis o Aromatase o Ovariectomy o Adrenalectomy o Contextual hypothesis o Kallman’s syndrome o “feast or famine” species o “slow but steady” species o Polygyny o Monogamy o Conspicuous ovulation o Concealment of ovulation o Confidence of paternity o Parental investment Being organized in a male- or female-typical fashion generally is not sufficient for behaving like a male or a female, respectively. In many cases, hormones must be present later on to activate the behavior. For example, male rats organized by neonatal testosterone replacement therapy following early castration will not, as adults, behave sexually toward a receptive female unless given testosterone shortly before exposure to a female. Similarly, the development of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty is dependent on testosterone (males) or estrogens (females). Secondary sexual characteristics include such things as beard growth and deeper voice in men, and breast enlargement in women. The goal of this lesson is to look at the evidence for the roles played by various hormones in bringing on the expression of sexual behavior. Lesson 16 189
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Terms of Endearment The activation of sexual motivation by hormones is made complex by the finding that there are three separate aspects to sexual motivation. Further, hormones can influence these aspects independently. In this section we will review these three aspects of sexual motivation. Attractivity . Hormonal changes may affect how attractive an individual is to the opposite sex. In female mammals, a wide variety of measures indicate that as estrogens increase, attractiveness to males also increases. Male monkeys, for instance, will work harder to get access to a female with high levels of estrogen than they do when the same female has lower levels of estrogen. The attractiveness seems to be primarily olfactory, but some female primates have swellings of the rump that are attractive to males. Female chimpanzees and baboons have these swellings, which are pink to red in color, are visible at great distances. These swellings are due to the secretion of estradiol. Proceptivity . Hormones can influence how attracted the individual is to the opposite sex. Estrogens are associated with how attracted females are to males. Female dogs, primates, and rodents demonstrate greater interest in males when the females have higher concentrations of estrogen, sometimes in combination with greater amounts of progesterone. Females approach males, engage in precopulatory behaviors, or even mount males under these circumstances. Receptivity
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lesson16 - 16 The Trouble with Testosterone Key Terms and...

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