civil rights IDs - Marissa Castrigno March 24, 2010 Civil...

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Marissa Castrigno March 24, 2010 Civil Rights IDs 29. Brown v Board of Ed of Topeka, Kansas : was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students, denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional. The decision overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This victory paved the way for integration and the civil rights movement. 30. White Citizens’ Council: also known as the Citizens' Councils of America was an American white supremacist organization. With about 15,000 members, mostly in the South, the group was well known for its opposition to racial integration in the South. Headed by Gordon Lee Baum, a St. Louis attorney, its issues involved the protection of "European-American heritage" from those of other ethnicities. The successor organization to the White Citizens' Council is the Council of Conservative Citizens. 31. Southern Manifesto: was a document written in February-March 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public places. The manifesto was signed by 101 politicians (99 Democrats and 2 Republicans) from Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. The
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civil rights IDs - Marissa Castrigno March 24, 2010 Civil...

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