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Unformatted text preview: A d v a n c e d P r o g r a m m i n g i n Q u a n t i t a t i v e E c o n o m i c s Introduction, structure, and advanced programming techniques 17 – 21 August 2009, Aarhus, Denmark Charles Bos cbos@feweb.vu.nl VU University Amsterdam Tinbergen Institute Advanced Programming in Quantitative Economics – p. 1 Day 3  Morning 9.00L Optimization ◦ NewtonRaphson and quadratic optimisation ◦ Hessian: Importance and problems ◦ Loglikelihood and covariance ◦ MaxBFGS 10.30P Estimating a duration model ◦ Likelihood ◦ Optimization ◦ Covariance 12.00 Lunch Advanced Programming in Quantitative Economics – p. 2 Maximization: Theory Rosenbrock function: g ( x ) = 100 ∗ ( x 2 − x 2 1 ) 2 + (1 − x 1 ) 2 f ( x ) = − g ( x )21.510.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 x 10.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 x 2 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 10000.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 421.510.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 x 2 x 1 Minimum of g ( x ) at (1, 1) — Steep function — minimum in ‘narrow crooked alley’ Advanced Programming in Quantitative Economics – p. 3 Wrong approach: Purely random Suppose: • Search in area [ − 10 , 10] 2 • Throw darts randomly • Continue until you get precision ǫ = 0 . 25 from minimum, in both coefficients How many darts would you need? P (  x i − x ∗ i  < ǫ ) = 2 ǫ 20 = . 025 P (  x i − x ∗ i  < ǫ,i = 1 , 2) = P (  x i − x ∗ i  < ǫ ) 2 = 4 ǫ 2 20 2 = 0 . 000625 E ( n ) = 1 /p = 1600 Way too many... See rb_darts.ox Advanced Programming in Quantitative Economics – p. 4 Better approach: Use function characteristics • Start in some point x ( k ) • Choose a direction s • Move distance α in that direction, x ( k +1) = x ( k ) + αs • Increase k , and possibly continue from 5 Direction s : Linked to gradient? Optimum: Gradient 0, second derivative positive definite? Advanced Programming in Quantitative Economics – p. 5 Ingredients f ( x ) : ℜ n → ℜ Function f ′ ( x ) = ∇ f ( x ) = bracketleftbigg ∂f ( x ) ∂x 1 ,... ∂f ( x ) ∂x n bracketrightbigg T ≡ g Derivative, gradient, Jacobian f ′′ ( x ) = ∇ 2 f ( x ) = bracketleftbigg ∂ 2 f ( x ) ∂x i ∂x j bracketrightbigg n i,j =1 ≡ H Second derivative, Hessian If derivatives are continuous, then ∂ 2 f ( x ) ∂x i ∂x j = ∂ 2 f ( x ) ∂x j ∂x i H = H T Hessian symmetric Advanced Programming in Quantitative Economics – p. 6 NewtonRaphson • Approach f ( x ) locally with quadratic function f ( x + h ) ≈ q ( h ) = f ( x ) + h T f ′ ( x ) + 1 2 h T f ′′ ( x ) h • Minimise q ( h ) (instead of f ( x + h ) ) q ′ ( h ) = f ′ ( x )+ f ′′ ( x ) h = 0 ⇔ f ′′ ( x ) h = − f ′ ( x ) or Hh = − g by solving last expression, h = − H − 1 g • Choose x = x + h , and repeat as necessary Problems: • Is H positive definite/invertible, at each step?...
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This note was uploaded on 05/28/2010 for the course ECONOMIC FM407 taught by Professor Kimcj during the Spring '04 term at 카이스트, 한국과학기술원.
 Spring '04
 KimCJ
 Economics, Econometrics

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